Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and their causes
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract disrupt its normal functioning, which causes common problems. The ability to normally assimilate the necessary substances from food entering the body is lost. This leads to loss of energy, the emergence of weakness and other similar difficulties.
Causes of diseases of the digestive tract
Gastric diseases and other disorders of the digestive system are quite diverse and common. Gastritis, colitis, peptic ulcer, dysbacterioses occur in the vast majority of the adult population, less often in children and adolescents. Despite the differences in each disease in clinical manifestations, developmental characteristics, localization and possible consequences, there are common factors contributing to the occurrence of pathologies. Nutrition. Food, getting into the digestive tract, has a direct impact on it and often becomes the main cause of the disease: spicy food lovers risk to earn gastritis, and those who consume high-calorie foods in large quantities will face intestinal obstruction. The overall balance of the diet, as well as the regularity of nutrition, also matters. Bad habits. Smoking and alcohol reduce the protection of the organs of the digestive tract, and have an irritating effect that can cause disease. Heredity. Psychologically unfavorable conditions (stress, depression, prolonged stress). Side effects of taking certain medications. Infections of the body.
Treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the majority are easily treatable, especially in the early stages. Therefore, one should not ignore such characteristic symptoms of the disease, such as pain localized in the abdominal area, abnormal stool (constipation, diarrhea, uncharacteristic impurities in the feces), belching, nausea and vomiting. Even if these manifestations were caused, for example, stale food, this factor can be a starting point. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can be cured by the use of conservative drug therapy. Drugs are prescribed depending on the specific disease and its stage of development. Compliance with the diet prescribed by a doctor, excluding additional food irritants, is mandatory. To enhance the effects of drugs used methods of physiotherapy: electrophoresis, ultrasound, magnetic therapy, galvanization, and more. Surgical intervention is suitable for advanced forms of the disease and the development of complications, as well as in the event that long-term conservative therapy does not lead to an improvement in the patient's condition.
Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract
A polyp is a pathological formation formed from epithelial cells that lines the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Such a pathological process has a benign course and most often occurs in the stomach or intestines. At the moment, the number of people with this disease is quite large. It should be noted that some types of polyps can lead to the occurrence of a malignant process. A reliable cause that causes the formation of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be identified. There are many different theories, but none of them is fully proven. An example is infectious theory.According to her, infection of the gastrointestinal tract by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori can lead to the development of such a pathological process. This is explained by the fact that this bacterium causes an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane, which, in turn, can provoke neoplasia of cellular elements. As a result, polypous formations are formed. In addition, there is a genetic theory. She says that this pathology is inherited from close relatives. In this case, the closer the relationship, the more likely the occurrence of this disease. This is explained by the fact that a specific defect arises in the genetic material of a person, provoking the pathological growth of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Summarizing all these theories, it can be said that a polyp can develop due to the following factors: Inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines of an acute or chronic nature; Systematic irritation of the mucous membrane of any substances, such as alcohol; Hereditary predisposition to this disease; Unbalanced diet with increased intake of fats and carbohydrates; Disruption of the normal balance of microflora in the intestine; Uncontrolled use of certain types of drugs, for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Congenital malformations of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on its morphological features, a polyp can be hyperplastic and adenomatous. The hyperplastic variety of this disease is characterized by the appearance of such tumors as a result of too active cell division, which make up the normal epithelium. In this case, the risk of developing a malignant process is minimal. Adenomatous variety is formed as a result of atypical degeneration of glandular cells. This form of the disease is quite dangerous, since in a large percentage of cases it turns into a malignant course.
Polyps in the stomach
Polyps in the stomach do not always give any clinical picture. As a rule, it occurs in the event that the tumor begins to grow in size. In addition, much depends on its localization and the individual characteristics of the body of a sick person. The most frequent manifestation of polyps in the stomach are dyspeptic disorders. They are characterized by periodic bloating, frequent nausea with vomiting episodes. A sick person may complain of heartburn and various disorders of the stool. The listed symptoms can be observed even with small sizes of polypous formations and often acts as the very first signal about the beginning of the pathological process. In some cases, joins pain in the epigastric region. As a rule, it occurs immediately or several hours after a meal. Polyps of the stomach may be complicated by bleeding. As a result, an admixture of blood begins to appear in the gag and feces. The skin becomes pale, and the general condition deteriorates significantly. In that case, if the bleeding is very heavy, it can threaten the life of a sick person.
Polyps in the intestines
The most frequent localization of polyps in the intestine is the colon. In more than half of the cases, such a pathological process occurs in the lumen of the rectum. However, the small intestine may also be subject to the development of this disease. Polyps in the intestines in some cases may not give any symptoms. Most often they begin to manifest themselves as they grow to a significant size. This may cause abdominal pain, stool disorders, nausea and vomiting. When polyposis formations are located in the large intestine, symptoms such as discharge of mucus or blood with stool masses, false desires for an act of defecation, burning sensation and itching in the rectum are noted. Polyps in the intestines can also be complicated by bleeding, which will threaten the life of a sick person. In addition, with their large size, intestinal obstruction may form.
The following instrumental methods can be used to diagnose such a disease: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; Rectoromanoscopy and colonoscopy; Endoscopic biopsy; X-ray examination with a contrast agent; Multispiral computed tomography.
Treatment of polyps and prevention of their occurrence
The main method of treatment of polyps is their surgical removal. The principle of operation and its volumes are selected for each patient individually, depending on the localization of the pathological process and its size. From medication drugs, sheathing agents, autoprojectors, proton pump inhibitors, and specific antibacterial drugs can be used as adjuvant therapy. To prevent this disease, it is recommended to promptly treat the inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract, eat right, give up bad habits and undergo preventive examinations.
Infections with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract
Infection is a pathological process in which pathogens enter the internal environment of the human body. Pathogens are bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa. They can cause the development of diseases of various systems and organs. Depending on the mechanism of infection, several variants of infections are distinguished: Endogenous variant - due to infection with a pathogenic element, which is already inside the body, while creating favorable conditions for this; Exogenous variant - a pathogen enters from the external environment; The secondary option is infection by a new type of pathogen in the presence of an already existing pathological process; Mixed version - is formed when exposed to several varieties of the pathogen. Any infection goes through several periods of its development: The incubation period is characterized by a time interval that passes from the moment the agent enters the body until the first clinical manifestations appear; Prodromal period - due to the appearance of the first symptoms that may not have any specificity; The height of the period - the clinical picture is fully manifested and allows you to establish the necessary diagnosis; The period of convalescence - during this period the body begins to recover and the symptoms gradually subside.
Intestinal infections caused by bacteria
Intestinal infections are one of the most common groups of diseases with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. There are many varieties of bacteria that can cause such a pathological process. These include shigella and salmonella. Infection of a person with such microorganisms occurs through the fecal-oral mechanism. It implies the ingress of bacteria with water, food or contact-household way. Shigellosis is an acute intestinal infection, which is characterized by involvement in the pathological process of the large intestine. This disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, which are fairly resistant to environmental factors. The clinical picture begins with a general intoxication syndrome. Patients noted a sharp increase in body temperature, the appearance of headache, increased weakness and decreased appetite. Against this background, there is an increase in stool, which often has a liquid character and may contain blood streaks. Sometimes the frequency of the act of defecation reaches a significant amount, which leads to dehydration. In addition, the characteristic feeling of nausea with episodes of vomiting and severe pain in the abdomen and the act of defecation. Salmonellosis is also an acute illness caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. They are characterized by pronounced stability and the ability to persist in the external environment for a sufficiently long amount of time. Their pathogenicity is due to the fact that they actively secrete exotoxins and endotoxins, which have an adverse effect on the entire body. The pathogen can be transmitted not only from a sick person to a healthy person, but also from domestic and farm animals. Symptomatology occurs acutely and is manifested by the appearance of liquid stools with a greenish tint and an unpleasant pronounced odor. There is a fever and deterioration in general well-being. Join vomiting and abdominal pain. The stomach is swollen and tense. In one of the variants of the disease on the surface of the skin may cause petechial rash. In addition, this intestinal infection can cause the appearance of meningeal symptoms in the form of convulsions and stiff neck.
Rotovirus infection is an acute disease with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. It is called the smallest virus particles that have a high degree of resistance to environmental factors. Penetration into the human body occurs through infected water, food, or dirty hands. It is characterized by the involvement of small intestinal cells in the pathological process. The clinical picture of rotavirus infection is manifested by: The appearance of catarrhal phenomena in the form of a cold, dry cough, oropharyngeal hyperemia; Increased body temperature and deterioration of general well-being in the form of weakness and loss of appetite; Episodes of diarrhea, which can be repeated a large number of times per day; Nausea and repeated vomiting; Soreness of the abdomen and bloating. Rotovirus infection due to frequent episodes of loose stools and vomiting can lead to dehydration. In turn, dehydration threatens the life of the patient, since there is a disruption in the normal functioning of all organs and systems. Diagnosis of infections of the gastrointestinal tract An infection of the gastrointestinal tract is primarily established when examining a patient and collecting his complaints. In many cases, this is enough to start the initial treatment. In order to confirm the diagnosis and determination of the pathogen, the following diagnostic measures are carried out: Bacteriological examination of feces; Virological examination of feces; Serological diagnostic methods; General clinical blood test.
Treatment of infections and their prevention
The methods used to treat infections of the gastrointestinal tract are selected depending on the condition of the patient and the causative agent of the disease. It is recommended for such patients to limit food intake for the period of acute manifestations. Perhaps the use of rice and oatmeal. Plentiful drinking is prescribed, if the condition of the body allows it. If you do not take the liquid through the mouth, then it is intravenous. Of the medications it is possible to use enterosorbents, antidiarrheal and antiemetic drugs. In some cases, the appointment of antibiotic therapy. Methods for the prevention of infection include the observance of hand hygiene, thorough washing and heat treatment of food, as well as drinking boiled or bottled water only.
Ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract
An ulcer is a locally occurring defect in a tissue similar to a wound cavity. Most often it occurs in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, namely in the stomach and duodenum. It is characterized by chronic recurrent course and the appearance of specific symptoms. Primarily, it affects the mucous membrane of the organ, but in the case of the absence of adequate treatment it can reach its deeper layers. In severe cases, it is complicated by the development of bleeding and perforation of the organ wall. Most often occurs in people of middle age group. Men suffer from this disease several times more often than women. The stomach is an anatomical formation located in the upper floor of the abdominal cavity. It belongs to the hollow organs and takes part in the process of digesting food masses that have entered the body. The wall of this organ consists of mucous, submucosa, muscular and serous membranes. And the most well developed is the muscular layer. In the structure of the stomach allocate the cardiac department, the body of the stomach and the pyloric department. The cardia is located at the junction of the stomach with the esophagus. The pyloric department is localized at the site of its transition to the duodenum. Between them is the body of the stomach. In addition, in this body emit such formations as the small curvature and large curvature. The process of food digestion occurs due to the effect of gastric juice, consisting of enzymatic substances and hydrochloric acid. The duodenum refers to the initial division of the small intestine and originates from the stomach. There are four main parts: the upper horizontal, lower horizontal, ascending and descending. The main function of this body is the ability to secrete its special enzymes and mix food masses with enzymes coming from the pancreas. In addition, it performs the motor function represented by pushing food further along the intestine. The most common ulcer, localized in the stomach or duodenum, occurs against the background of existing gastritis of the stomach. In this process, the formation of eroded sections of the gastric mucosa, which can later turn into an ulcerative defect. However, sometimes it occurs as an independent disease as a result of exposure to pathogenic factors. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal ulcers include: Infection of the gastrointestinal tract by pathogenic microorganisms, for example, Helicobacter; Uncontrolled intake of certain types of drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Wrong and unbalanced nutrition; Addiction to alcohol and nicotine; Frequent stressful effects on the body; Hereditary predisposition to this disease.
Symptoms of stomach ulcers
As mentioned earlier, gastric ulcer most often occurs as a result of existing gastritis, which has not been treated. This is explained by the fact that in some forms of gastritis an increase in the acidity of the gastric juice occurs, which has an aggressive effect on the gastric wall. In addition, an imbalance is observed between the protective system of the stomach and adverse effects. The mucus that forms to protect the gastric wall ceases to cope with its enveloping function. The symptoms of stomach ulcers include: Pain syndrome, which may have a different intensity and manifest with periods of remission and exacerbation; Increased pain after food in the stomach; A feeling of fullness in the stomach, even after consuming a small amount of food; Nausea and vomiting episodes; Abdominal distention and belching; Weight loss and bowel movement disorder in the form of constipation; Whitish plaque on the surface of the tongue. A stomach ulcer without appropriate treatment can cause chronic bleeding, leading to the development of anemia. In addition, there is a high risk of its perforation with the further occurrence peritoneal inflammation, life-threatening patient. Symptoms of duodenal ulcer The duodenal ulcer is found several times more often than a similar stomach disease. It is mostly characterized by a change in periods of remission and exacerbation, which is directly related to the time of day and seasonality. Most often, it is exacerbated in spring and autumn. The clinical picture of duodenal ulcers is characterized by: Pain that occurs in a hungry condition; Pain syndrome at night; The spread of pain in the lower back or scapular region; The feeling of heartburn that occurs after food is ingested; Increased gas formation in the intestines, manifested by bloating; Nausea and vomiting; Constipation. Duodenal ulcer, in addition to the development of bleeding and perforation,can go on the oncological process without timely treatment.
Diagnosis of the disease
The ulcer is established on the basis of complaints of the patient and the clinical picture of the disease. In order to confirm the diagnosis are carried out: Fibroesofagogastroduodenoscopy; X-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract; Respiratory test to determine Helicobacter; The study of the acidity of gastric juice.
Treatment of ulcers and its prevention
In the treatment of ulcers, the following drugs can be used: Antibacterial drugs in the allocation of Helicobacter; Antisecretory agents; Drugs with antacid action and prokinetics; Antispasmodics for pain relief. To prevent ulcers, it is recommended to follow the principles of a balanced diet, give up bad habits, avoid stressful situations and promptly treat existing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Common Myths about Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract
It is said that all diseases from nerves, and, according to many doctors, the cause of ailments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are precisely the effects of stress that millions of modern people feel today. If you add bad nutrition and constantly deteriorating ecology, the picture is altogether depressing. All this gave rise to many rumors and speculations, many of which are far from reality.
Myth 1: Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are not related to the mental state of a person
According to many gastroenterologists, stress, depression and neurosis are just the primary cause of the development of diseases of the digestive system. Why in our country, statistics on peptic ulcer after 2000 was closed? Because the country is mired in social problems. And today the number of those suffering from a perforated ulcer is growing exponentially, acting as a kind of marker for an unfavorable social situation in society. Diseases such as hernia, cancer of the esophagus and stomach are not included here, but banal gastritis and an ulcer cannot be cured either medically or surgically, if you do not normalize your mental state.
Myth 2: The main cause of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with the activity of the bacterium Helicobacter
The human body is home to billions of all kinds of bacteria. Helicobacter - one of them. This microbe lives under the mucus of the stomach and can cause such a disease as atrophic gastritis. But in the inflamed gastric mucosa there are very many different pathogenic microorganisms, it just so happened that it was Helicobacter that attracted attention. In fact, stomach diseases - ulcers and gastritis provoke a whole complex of negative factors, including Helicobacter. In her presence, ulcers and other mucosal damage heal worse.
Myth 3: Diseases of the stomach - the lot of women
The vast majority of patients with peptic ulcer are men, and this is not surprising. And although in the age of new technologies with its gender equality and the lack of gender differences, women work equally with men, it is the latter that are most affected by stress, since most of the workload is borne on their shoulders. They are more susceptible to the development of gastric cancer, but the worst thing is that this ailment has become very "younger" in recent years.
Myth 4: Stomach cancer is a hereditary disease
According to statistics, only 5% of patients received their ailment by inheritance. The remaining 95% were targeted by food carcinogens. Sanctions have enabled many domestic businessmen to break into the market, but still finding environmentally friendly fruits and vegetables, meat and other products without preservatives and carcinogens is very difficult today. At one point, such a diet will lead to the fact that the stomach starts to hurt, gastritis will appear, then an ulcer. If you do not treat these diseases of the stomach and continue to eat low-quality products, it is possible the development of cancer.
Myth 5: Own home-made products are more useful than store products
Yes, homemade canned fruits and vegetables, all sorts of pickles and jams do not contain chemical additives, unlike shop counterparts, but, unfortunately, in these blanks there is often a lot of salt, and it is an indirect carcinogen. Salt is a poison, and often the causes of diseases of the cardiovascular system lie in its excess in the body. In addition, to extend the shelf life in house canned housewives add vinegar and often in quantities that can bring a lot of harm to the digestive tract. To preserve summer abundance on the tables in the winter it is recommended to freeze fruits and vegetables. They do not lose their healthy and taste properties, and dishes from them will be an excellent alternative to homemade pickles and preserves.
Myth 6: Prevention of gastrointestinal diseases can be done independently
Of course, first of all, a person should exercise the prevention of stomach diseases himself, leading a healthy lifestyle, choosing high-quality and environmentally friendly products, normalizing sleep and rest, avoiding stress. Periodically it is recommended to undergo a medical examination - to make a gastroscopy, X-ray, to pass all the necessary tests prescribed by the doctor. This is especially true for those who occasionally encounter suspicious symptoms such as heartburn, pain in the upper part of the epigastrium. , flatulence, nausea, belching, stool changes. The problem is that so many people do not want to be treated and are being dragged to the last, before they go to a doctor, they try to cope with the disease on their own or go to paid doctors. Unfortunately, paid services are not a guarantee of professionalism of the doctor. So that your own delay does not lead to terrible consequences and the development of cancer, especially its last stages, when the chances of healing are quite limited, you need to take care of yourself, remember what causes of the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and, to the extent possible, carry out prevention of these ailments. Well, in severe cases, hoping for the best, because even cancer is not a sentence.
Myth 7: Folk treatment of stomach diseases is more effective than traditional treatment
Unfortunately, many people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, prefer to experiment with themselves and be treated with folk remedies instead of seeking help from a doctor. Of course, no one diminishes the effectiveness of herbal medicine, because many substances contained in medicinal plants are part of pharmaceutical preparations, but only a doctor can control treatment. Only he can determine how effective a particular drug is, correct the dose and determine the duration of therapy. It must be borne in mind that the dose of the active substance required to provide a therapeutic effect in the collection of herbs is much lower than in the tablet. And the absence of toxins, on which all lovers of folk treatment focus, is in great doubt, because a lot depends on the ecological situation in the places where these plants grew.Medicinal herbscan be treated, but they can be used only as part of complex therapy only with the consent of the attending physician.
Symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding The symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding are directly related to the location of its source. With an active upper end gastrointestinal tract, the first symptoms that appear in a patient are nausea and vomiting. Vomit can contain as bright red blood (when bleeding, the benefits arterial vessels; fresh bleeding) and dark clots (in the case of venous, capillary or mixed bleeding). The contents of the stomach can also resemble the coffee grounds in appearance. This particular species occurs when blood is mixed with acidic gastric secretion. The upper part of the FCC stool has a dark, even black, color, a tarry consistency and a pronounced unpleasant odor. In the presence of pathology of the lower divisions, the symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding depend on the nature of the pathological process. A specific sign of bleeding associated with intestinal diverticulum (protrusion of the intestinal wall) is the appearance of a "currant or cherry jelly" stool; in inflammatory bowel disease, the patient may be disturbed by abdominal cramps and pain, diarrhea, and false urge to defecate.Other symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding depend more on the intensity, and not on the localization of the source of bleeding. These symptoms include weakness, dizziness, the appearance of pallor of the skin, low blood pressure, heart palpitations. With heavy bleeding, especially from large-diameter vessels, and severe blood loss, loss of consciousness is possible. If gallstones arise from superficial mucosal lesions, regardless of their location, then in most cases they stop independently. The volume of blood loss while small and obvious symptoms of GCC may be absent. Such bleeding is called hidden. If latent bleeding recurs, the patient may experience signs of iron deficiency anemia: general weakness, fatigue at the slightest exercise,increasing paleness of the skin. The patient may also be disturbed by headache, insomnia, and with long-term disease, shortness of breath may appear. Forms of gastrointestinal bleeding Isolation of various forms of FCC is of great importance, first of all, for determining the diagnostic tactics, as well as the amount of treatment and the intensity of therapy. Depending on what type of vessels was the source, the bleeding can be arterial, venous, capillary and mixed. By localization, bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract and bleeding from the lower intestinal tract are isolated. The upper sections include the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, and the lower sections - the small intestine and the large intestine. By the nature of bleeding can be acute and chronic (hidden). According to the intensity I allocate an intensive and not intensive FCC,and in severity - mild, moderate and severe bleeding.
Causes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding
The most common cause of GIUs from the upper sections are ulcers or acute erosion of the stomach or duodenum. These bleedings are called ulcers. The gastrointestinal tract can also be caused by varicose- dilated veins of the esophagus with portal hypertension syndrome (in most cases it develops against the background of cirrhosis of the liver), ruptures of the gastric mucosa in the cardiac section, acute ulcers against the background of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory or hormonal preparations (for example, in patients receiving ongoing treatment for chronic diseases of the joints and connective tissue). Lower bleeding may be due to diverticulosis. intestinal tumors and colon polyps, infectious colitis, Crohn's disease, hemorrhoids and anal fissure. GCC often occurs on the background of blood diseases - hemophilia, hemorrhagic vasculitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, or blood vessels - hemangiomas. Of course, this significantly affects the severity of the patients and requires treatment in specialized hospitals, and not in the general surgical departments. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnostic algorithm is based on a combination of careful collection of complaints and anamnesis, examination, instrumental and laboratory research methods. Be sure to carry out the determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit and the number of blood cells. To assess the severity of disorders caused by blood loss, the indicators of blood coagulation, acid-base status and blood gases. The main method of diagnostics of upper endothelial diseases of gastrointestinal diseases is esophagogastroduodenoscopy using flexible fiber- optic optics. When bleeding from the lower intestine patients perform a colonoscopy. In some cases, can be assigned: ultrasound, computed tomography, scintigraphy. If hidden bleeding is suspected, a stool test for occult blood is prescribed. The most difficult from the point of view of diagnosis are bleeding when the source is localized in the small intestine. This section of the intestine is not available for inspection or gastroduodenoscopy nor with colonoscopy. The only opportunity for the study of this body at the present time is the use of an endoscopic capsule. This device is small in size, its weight does not exceed 4 g, but by equipping the capsule with a color camera, light sources and radio transmitters powered by a battery, it is possible to obtain a high-quality image of the entire digestive canal.
Treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding
Treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding of any localization includes a set of measures that are aimed at establishing the source of bleeding, the most effective stop of bleeding and prevention of its renewal. Prevention of re-bleeding includes, above all, the treatment of diseases of the digestive tract, which was complicated by bleeding. Treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding can be conservative (creation of hypothermia, for example, gastric lavage with ice solutions, administration of drugs that block acid production, local or systemic hemostatic therapy), be performed using therapeutic endoscopy, or require various types of surgical interventions. The "gold standard" in the treatment of bleeding is endoscopic hemostasis,which can be performed using thermal (electro-or laser coagulation), mechanical (suture or special titanium terminals on the bleeding vessel) and injection (irrigate the place or bleed with special sclerosants , alcohol or stick with fibrin or cyanoacrylate glue, styptic collagen sponges are laid). Severe blood loss may require infusion-transfusion therapy or blood transfusion (red blood cell or blood transfusion). Complications of gastrointestinal bleeding The main complication that can develop after bleeding, both from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, is acute post-hemorrhagic anemia of varying severity.
Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding
Since the gastrointestinal tract is not an independent pathology, but is a formidable complication of various diseases of the digestive tract, the main method of its prevention is the treatment of any disease, which can potentially be complicated by bleeding. After 45 years of age, regular follow-up analysis of fecal occult blood is shown as part of a follow-up examination. It is recommended to use a highly sensitive immunochemical method of fecal occult blood analysis, which does not require any nutritional restrictions before the analysis.