Obesity is a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the patient's body. Pathological process affects the work of the whole organism. Overweight has a particularly strong effect on the state of the cardiovascular system, liver, and bone and joint formations. Excessive formation of fatty deposits gives a person not only physical but also psychological discomfort, leads to a violation of his social adaptation.
Causes of obesity
Obesity can be primary and secondary. The primary form of the pathology is not associated with any other diseases. Secondary obesity occurs against the background of another disease, which leads to a change in metabolism in the body. The main causes of primary obesity are the imbalance between incoming calories and their expenditure on the activity of the body. If a person eats a lot and moves a little, then excess substances are transformed into fatty tissue and deposited in his body. Initially, surpluses are deposited in areas that are considered "fat depots" of the body. This group includes: subcutaneous fatty tissue; large and small oil seals; anterior abdominal wall. In the future, body fat begins to accumulate in the area of internal organs, which can significantly impair their work. Not only the quantity of food, but also its quality affects the body weight. The abundance of harmful products (fatty and fried foods, fast food) leads to a rapid weight gain. Especially dangerous are fast carbohydrates, which are contained in flour and confectionery products, candy, chocolate. If they make up most of the diet, then the person will be particularly active in gaining weight. Of great importance and nutrition. If you skip breakfast, ignore lunch and gorge on late at night or at night, then the body will not be able to normally digest food. Secondary obesity occurs due to any metabolic disorders caused by diseases or taking certain drugs. Most often, the secondary form develops against the background of hormonal disorders - the so-called endocrine obesity. The following processes can cause it: hypothyroidism - thyroid insufficiency; Itsenko-Cushing disease - damage to the adrenal cortex; hypogonadism is a violation of the synthesis of sex hormones. In women, the disease can develop against the background of certain physiological processes. For example, an increase in body weight occurs during pregnancy or during breastfeeding. The accumulation of body fat can be associated with menopause. Obesity in these conditions is explained by the fact that hormones are rebuilt in the woman's body, which affects not only the genitals, but also the metabolism as a whole. An increase in body weight may be caused by a mental disorder - bulimia. The condition is more common among women. Against the background of any experiences, the patients begin to overeat, trying to "stifle" these unpleasant feelings. Therefore, bulimia is usually accompanied by obesity. Weight gain is observed with the use of certain drugs. For example, uncontrolled use of insulin or oral contraceptives can lead to obesity.
Symptoms of the disease
To diagnose the disease, a special indicator is used - body mass index. To calculate it, it is necessary to divide the patient's mass by height, squared. Depending on the result obtained, several degrees of obesity are distinguished: an index from 25 to 30 - pre - obesity; 30-35 - 1 degree; 35-40 - 2 degree; more than 40 - 3 degree. Due to being overweight, the patient may experience symptoms of concomitant diseases. Pathologies that occur with obesity include: hypertension; heart attacks and strokes; atherosclerosis of the arterial vessels; type 2 diabetes; venous insufficiency; skeletal deformities, spinal diseases. Because of these processes, patients have shortness of breath, sweating increases, and constipation develops. Often the character changes - they become irritable and nervous, experiencing fatigue and weakness. Due to increased perspiration, symptoms of skin lesions often appear - boils, acne.
What should be the food?
The main method of treating primary obesity is proper nutrition and an active lifestyle. Patients need to follow a special diet. The diet should be made according to the following rules: reduce the caloric content of food to 1000-1500 kcal per day; exclude from the diet fried foods, flour and confectionery; limit coffee consumption, give up alcoholic beverages during treatment; prepare a healthy breakfast every morning - cereals, fruit salads or smoothies; not eating at least 4 hours before bedtime; enter in the diet more fruits and vegetables; observe drinking mode - use at least 2 liters of liquid daily; reduce salt intake, as it retains fluid in the body; make the diet varied, try new healthy foods; if necessary, use multivitamin complexes that provide an adequate supply of vital substances in the body. When calculating the number of calories that must be received during the day, it is necessary to take into account the sex of the patient, his age and the nature of physical activity. It is recommended to abandon strict monotonous diets. The effect of their use will be very short-lived, and the restriction of the diet will bring the body not good, but harm. Competently chosen food and adequate physical exertion - the key to effective weight loss.
Prevention of obesity involves compliance with the following recommendations: eat right, count the calories of each dish that is eaten; drink enough water daily; exercise at least several times a week. If symptoms occur on the part of the endocrine organs (shortness of breath, tachycardia, weakness, etc.), you should consult a doctor and be examined.
The problem of obesity is currently very acute. Overweight suffers every second person on the planet. And over time, the problem only becomes more acute - the number of obese people increases over the years, and by 2030, scientists predict a significant increase in this indicator. According to their disappointing forecasts, the number of obesity cases will increase even in those countries where this indicator is currently minimal (Korea, Japan). Obesity is a disease that affects many areas of a person's life. Overweight has a detrimental effect on health, interferes with a normal life, obese people often have psychological problems, are reluctant to hire them, etc. For example, in the UK, where obesity is very high among the population, doctors are generally faced with an unusual problem. Fat British no longer fit in the scanners. Conducting such a highly informative study as magnetic resonance therapy (MRI) has become inaccessible for many people in this country. In addition to some social problems, people with obesity suffer from a whole bunch of diseases, because metabolic disorders developing in this pathology lead to the formation of a number of serious diseases, among which diabetes mellitus, changes in the heart and blood vessels, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and more.
Reason number 1. Obesity causes heart and vascular disease
If earlier it was believed that obesity is just an aesthetic problem, then at present it is known that adipose tissue is not only the body's energy reserves, but also hormonally active tissue. This results in many disadvantages associated with being overweight. The fact is that adipose tissue is able to independently produce a number of hormones, enzymes and some other active substances that are embedded in metabolic processes in the body, make their own changes, which are starting for many pathological processes. The heart and blood vessels are one of the main targets for metabolic syndrome, which develops with excess weight. Metabolic disorders that occur in obesity, trigger atherogenesis - the process of damage to the walls of blood vessels, which leads to the formation of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis - narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels due to damage to the inner lining and deposition of cholesterol plaques in the wall is the cause of the development of heart attacks, strokes, angina pectoris. And cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death at the present time.
Reason number 2. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes
Adipose tissue is "insensitive" to insulin, as a result of which, with a large amount of it in the body, insulin resistance develops. Pancreatic cells have to produce more insulin to compensate for the needs of body tissues. Until a certain moment she manages to do this, but over time the glandular apparatus of the pancreas is depleted, she becomes unable to produce the required amount of insulin. Clinically, this is manifested by hyperglycemia - an increase in blood glucose levels. So against the background of obesity type 2 diabetes develops.
Reason number 3. Obesity leads to changes in the liver
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease leads among all pathologies of the liver. This disease is accompanied by obesity and diabetes mellitus, it affects about 25% of the world's population. In this pathology, fats accumulate in the liver cells in large quantities. For a long time, the disease may be asymptomatic. Ultimately, inflammation and fibrosis (proliferation of connective tissue) develops in the liver - non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is formed. Most non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is benign, but in some cases degenerates into cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Reason number 4. Obesity is bad for women's health
Women with an increased body mass index are in the so-called risk group. Obstetricians and gynecologists to this contingent are treated with special attention, because the overweight hides many problems that manifest themselves from the moment of planning a pregnancy and pursue a woman even in childbirth. And the higher the degree of obesity, the greater the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth is a woman. For this reason, doctors advise before planning pregnancy if possible, to reduce body weight. Problems with conception in obese women Studies have shown that the number of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant in obese women is much higher than in women with a normal body mass index. How an excessive amount of adipose tissue affects the fertility of women is currently unknown, but there is an assumption that this is due to the following factors: Insulin resistance Insulin resistance (insensitivity of tissues to insulin) leads to disruption of metabolic processes in the body, aggravating already existing diseases.
An increase in the level of male hormones in the blood during obesity is associated with hyperinsulinemia, the ability of the adipose tissue to produce steroid hormones, which leads to a hormonal imbalance in the female body, disruption of the menstrual cycle.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
In women, obesity often goes hand in hand with a disease such as polycystic ovary. There are suggestions that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of this pathology is insulin resistance. The disease is characterized by anovulation (lack of ovulation) and the presence of multiple cysts in the ovaries, which precludes the onset of pregnancy. Poor quality of oocytes Impaired metabolic processes in obesity adversely affect the ovarian function of the ovaries (the process of maturation of the eggs), the quality of germ cells decreases - the number of unsuccessful pregnancies increases.
Even if a woman with obesity of varying degrees, conception was possible - you can not relax. Her pregnancy can occur with certain risks to the health of the mother and fetus. In overweight pregnant women, the following complications occur more frequently during pregnancy: Frequent miscarriages and spontaneous abortions; The development of gestational diabetes; The development of gestational hypertension; Premature labor; Post- pregnancy; Multiple pregnancy; Increased risk of congenital fetal abnormalities; Stillbirth
Reason number 5. Obesity can cause cancer
This is a shocking conclusion made by scientific experts from the World Cancer Research Fund. They studied the relationship of eating habits with the risk of developing malignant tumors. In 2017, they demonstrated evidence that excess weight leads to the formation of tumors or significantly increases the risk of their occurrence. In persons with obesity, malignant tumors often develop in the following sites: Oral cavity; Pharynx; Esophagus; Stomach; Intestines; Pancreas; Gallbladder; Liver; Buds; Prostate; Uterus; Breast; The ovaries.
Reason number 6. Obesity decreases children's mental abilities
This conclusion was made by Finnish scientists who observed children of primary school age. They found that boys who were 6–7 years old and overweight had a low reading ability. These same children also showed weak motor skills, which, as we know, are associated with brain activity - the same area in the brain is responsible for locomotor activity and ability to learn / remember. Scientists from Finland recommend instilling in children a love for sport, because regular exercise helps to combat obesity and at the same time develop motor skills - the child improves memory.
People with obesity, more often than others, develop diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and these diseases are currently among the first causes of death. In addition, overweight leads to impaired reproductive function, both in women and men, reducing fertility rates.
Obesity: prevalence and consequences
Globally, the level of obesity is growing, and in comparison, with 1980, the number of people with this diagnosis has doubled. Some authors note that at present, the growth of patients with such a diagnosis has stopped, which is good news. But still the problem remains relevant, and all actions of doctors are aimed at its elimination. The causes of obesity and excess weight are quite a lot: unhealthy diet, popularization of fast food, convenience foods, sedentary lifestyle and much more. For these reasons, the implementation of preventive measures is problematic. This unstoppable tendency to increase the growth of patients with obesity and the search for simple ways to minimize the risk can have a wide range of consequences, and even not all patients are suitable. If we talk about the consequences, then obesity is associated with a number of problems: the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, effects on the functioning of internal organs, and general well-being increases. It is known that obesity is one of the causes of prolonged depression and chronic stress, and, as you know, all diseases of the nerves. As body weight increases, health problems also increase, which may explain the importance of finding ways to minimize these effects. Many scientific studies are devoted to this problem, scientists are looking for effective ways to achieve the goal with minimal consequences. A recent study focused on the following topic: how green tea compounds interact with intestinal bacteria and affect obesity and the consequences associated with this condition.
Increase in the number of beneficial bacteria
Previous studies have shown: green tea helps in the fight against obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. But many authors have noted: the results obtained were contradictory. Professor Richard Bruno - the author of the new study - set the task: to find the most accurate and reliable answers to the question of whether green tea really affects intestinal bacteria and whether it can contribute to weight loss and prevent obesity. As the researchers noted, the results that were obtained earlier were contradictory, because some of them confirmed the effectiveness of green tea for weight loss, but others indicated that there is no effect, and other factors, such as nutritional correction, affect the weight reduction. lifestyles, etc. The study, conducted by Professor Richard Bruno and his team, was conducted on rodents. For 8 weeks, one group of mice received a standard diet, the second - a diet high in fat, which led to obesity. Each group received green tea extract. The control group of mice was also divided into 2 subgroups, which received similar nutrition, but without the addition of green tea extract. It is worth noting that only males took part in the study, because females of rodents are considered to be resistant to obesity, caused by diet and other causes associated with metabolic changes. At the end of the experiment, scientists evaluated a number of factors: the permeability of the intestinal walls, as a factor associated with inflammation and other associated diseases. Signs of inflammation, the microbial landscape, the composition of the intestinal microflora and its balance were also evaluated. The level of endotoxins in the bloodstream was also evaluated. Intestinal bacteria produce these chemicals that, when released into the blood, spread throughout the body. These circumstances contribute to inflammation and the formation of insulin resistance, which is the precursor of diabetes. As scientists hoped, the data confirmed: green tea had a beneficial effect. Micewho received a high-fat diet with green tea consumed gained 20% less weight than those who did not. There was also a lower level of insulin resistance. The data obtained indicate that green tea promotes the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, which has several advantages for the body and reduces the risk of obesity.
Studies have shown that mice that received high-fat diets and green tea supplementation had lower levels of endotoxins in their blood. Animals that received green tea also had a healthier microflora. It is noteworthy that the group of mice that received regular food, without a high fat content, also benefited from the use of green tea. Of course, they were not so pronounced, but statistically significant. The study notes that in order to consume the equivalent amount of green tea that mice received, a person needs to consume about 10 cups of tea per day. This amount of tea in some parts of the world is not considered large and something unattainable, it is quite an ordinary amount of drink. The authors of the study noted that it is too early to say that that the results should be transferred to people; more research is needed. But still such a culture of consumption of green tea is very useful, especially for those who seek to lose weight. Obesity is a very common problem, and an integrated approach is needed to get rid of excess weight. Such simple recommendations as nutrition correction, exercise is important, but additional approaches are needed to promote health and prevent even greater weight gain. Such actions will contribute to the prevention of complications and consequences associated with obesity. Obesity is a very common problem, and an integrated approach is needed to get rid of excess weight. Such simple recommendations as nutrition correction, exercise is important, but additional approaches are needed to promote health and prevent even greater weight gain. Such actions will contribute to the prevention of complications and consequences associated with obesity. Obesity is a very common problem, and an integrated approach is needed to get rid of excess weight. Such simple recommendations as nutrition correction, exercise are important, but additional approaches are needed to promote health and prevent even greater weight gain. Such actions will contribute to the prevention of complications and consequences associated with obesity.
How the immune system changes the pancreas in obesity
Translated from the Greek macrophage means "big eater", the main work of these activated cells of the immune system - to devour an alien. Macrophages absorb and digest pathogenic microbes, unhealthy molecules, and even other cells in the body when they become damaged. Macrophages are present throughout the body, armed and ready to immediately begin work if necessary. Recently, researchers from the University of California (San Diego) learned more about how macrophages affect obesity. They found that obesity can change the function of macrophages in the pancreas, preventing the proper functioning of the organ and promoting the development of type 2 diabetes. Excess weight is formed against the background of poor nutrition, and the formation of diabetes threatens to change the concentration of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia), provoking serious complications.
Pancreas: how does it work?
The pancreas is an organ located behind the stomach, in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. It is important for proper digestion of food and maintaining a stable concentration of sugar in the blood. Specialized areas of the pancreas, called a cluster, beta cells are responsible for reducing the concentration of sugar in the blood, synthesizing portions of insulin. It signals the body's tissues, for example, fat cells, to take sugar from the blood, which leads to a decrease in glycemia (plasma glucose concentration). The insulin signal is balanced by another substance produced in the pancreas called glucagon. Glucagon is a signal for the liver, stimulating the release of glucose into the plasma, which leads to an increase in blood sugar. This act of balancing blood sugar is important because glucose is one of the main sources of energy in the body, so its absorption from the blood contributes to healthy cellular function.
Impaired blood sugar concentration: what is dangerous?
If the amount of sugar in the blood exceeds the standards, or too low, many health problems can occur - from kidney damage and nerve damage to heart disease and stroke. The pancreas controls blood sugar. Maintaining balance, when blood sugar fluctuates within insignificant, healthy limits, is necessary for full body work and prevention of various diseases. One of the factors that can have serious negative consequences for this process of glucose regulation is obesity. With the development of obesity, the accumulation of excess fat in the body due to poor nutrition and lack of physical activity creates stress on many organs, including the pancreas. Over time, the beta cells stop producing enough insulin, even when blood sugar is high. Without a change in nutrition or increased physical activity, hyperglycemia leads to the development of type 2 diabetes.
Nutrition, overweight, diabetes
In Russia, the number of patients with type 2 diabetes is growing rapidly. This disease is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and abnormalities in the regulation of blood sugar concentration. It is noteworthy that people with this disease are at risk for serious complications, such as heart disease and kidney damage, impaired nerve sensitivities, and stroke. The main risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes is obesity. In people who are not obese, the level of glycemia is usually at its lowest level on waking up or before eating. However, a diet rich in light carbohydrates, and the lack of full physical activity over time leads to the fact that plasma glucose levels can remain extremely high even after fasting. This causes two major problems in the pancreas, namely, insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, which contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. When plasma glucose levels are constantly high, over time the insulin signal becomes less powerful because it is used too often. Then the cells no longer use or accumulate sugar inside the cells in response to insulin signals. This phenomenon known as insulin resistance. In addition to this phenomenon, the pancreatic beta cells begin to function abnormally: their dysfunction develops. For example, with a constantly high level of glucose, they may lose their ability to react to changes in the amount of sugar, which, in turn, affects their insulin production.
The role of obesity in the genesis of diabetes
There are many processes that can lead to beta cell dysfunction and a general decrease in insulin levels. Some factors are not yet known or have not been fully studied by researchers. For example, obesity has long been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, but only recently have researchers begun to understand why this is happening. Toward the end of 2018, scientists from the University of California (San Diego) identified specific immune cells in the pancreas - macrophages that can provide a vicious link between obesity and dysfunctional beta cells that promote type 2 diabetes.
And then immunity?
In the body, immunity is like an army in a state. He is responsible for fighting infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, and for clearing anything that should not be present in a healthy body. Many different cells participate in the formation of immunity, and, as in the army, each cell plays its own role. The immune system not only responds to an infectious attack, but has also been shown to become active in response to chronic diseases, such as autoimmune processes, heart disease, and cancer. In fact, type 1 diabetes is an example of an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly targets the destruction of healthy cells. Unlike type 2 diabetes, which is caused by changes in the perception and response to insulin, type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition caused by the activation of immune cells that mistakenly destroy islets beta cells, with the result that the pancreas is not able to produce insulin. In recent years, studies have also shown that obesity can affect immunity. Obesity is known to cause inflammation - an immune system reaction that increases blood flow, directing immune cells and active immune response molecules to a specific area of the body. Inflammation should be a short-term response, but when it becomes chronic, it does more harm than good. Obesity can cause inflammation in body fat and pancreas, among other organs. But the effect of this inflammation on the cells of the pancreas is not entirely clear. The research team used obese mice to test the relationship between the immune system and the pancreas for obesity. They are showing, that during obesity, macrophages are activated that are present in the pancreas, and begin to partially devour beta cells. It was also found that macrophages blocked or "eaten" insulin, which produces iron, contributing to an overall decrease in plasma insulin levels. These changes in insulin levels can be detrimental to maintaining normal blood sugar levels over time and can contribute to the development of diabetes.
Obese people like food less
Scientists from Bangor University in Wales argue that people suffering from obesity, get less pleasure from eating than those who do not have extra pounds. AT The study involved 53 people, 20 of whom had normal weight, and 33 had obesity. They all installed on their smartphone a mobile application specially designed for the project, with which they were fixed on a 10-point system, when they were drawn to food and what sensations did, they experience after it. Surprisingly, obese people, as it turned out, eat even less often (on average 5 times a day) than project participants with normal weight (on average 6 times a day). The subjects from both groups waited for about 18 minutes between the first urge to eat and the actual absorption of food, that is, one cannot say that people with obesity feel hungrier than those who do not have excess weight. But a significant difference between the groups was found in relation to food and eating patterns. Healthy people ate when they were hungrythen highly valued their own sense of satisfaction. People with obesity often sat down at the table even when they were not hungry, and their satisfaction scores with the food eaten were on average significantly lower. According to scientists, the lack of pleasure from eating can encourage people with obesity to eat more often in the search for this sensation. That is, such people react more acutely to food urges, but do not receive the expected satisfaction. Scientists say that modern people often eat not to satisfy their hunger, but to reward themselves. And the behavior of people with obesity suggests that they do not have this reward in everyday life, which leads to overeating in trying to achieve the expected pleasure. their assessments of satisfaction with food eaten were, on average, significantly lower. According to scientists, the lack of pleasure from eating can encourage people with obesity to eat more often in the search for this sensation. That is, such people react more acutely to food urges, but do not receive the expected satisfaction. Scientists say that modern people often eat not to satisfy their hunger, but to reward themselves. And the behavior of people with obesity suggests that they do not have this reward in everyday life, which leads to overeating in trying to achieve the expected pleasure. their assessments of satisfaction with food eaten were, on average, significantly lower. According to scientists, the lack of pleasure from eating can encourage people with obesity to eat more often in the search for this sensation. That is, such people react more acutely to food urges, but do not receive the expected satisfaction. Scientists say that modern people often eat not to satisfy their hunger, but to reward themselves. And the behavior of people with obesity suggests that they do not have this reward in everyday life, which leads to overeating in trying to achieve the expected pleasure. Scientists say that modern people often eat not to satisfy their hunger, but to reward themselves. And the behavior of people with obesity suggests that they do not have this reward in everyday life, which leads to overeating in trying to achieve the expected pleasure. Scientists say that modern people often eat not to satisfy their hunger, but to reward themselves. And the behavior of people with obesity suggests that they do not have this reward in everyday life, which leads to overeating in trying to achieve the expected pleasure.
Obesity and flu: how overweight increases the risks
In the wake of the popularity of ideas about body positivity, going beyond the normal body weight is less and less considered painful and requiring action. Of course, so far obesity is not welcomed by the majority of the population, which, if not adheres to a healthy lifestyle, then at least not against a good figure. But people who do not want to lose weight for various reasons, all the more loudly defend their right to remain in the weight that suits them. This right, of course, is every person on Earth. The main thing is to take into account the consequences that extra pounds can cause. Even with flu viruses, people with normal weight and excess react differently. MedAboutMe figured out how extra pounds affect the course of this most common acute respiratory viral infection.
Overweight and spread of infection
Influenza is spread most often by people with a mild form of the disease. It is they who heroically go to work with the temperature, sneezing at the same time at others in every sense of the word. That they walk around the office, increasing the concentration of the virus in the air. But, anyway, after 7 days, the virus usually stops being released into the environment - if only the person's weight is within the normal range. Researchers from the University of Michigan for three epidemic seasons studied the effect of obesity on the course of the flu among 1.8 thousand inhabitants of Nicaragua. Scientists were especially interested in how long flu patients remain distributors of the virus. To clarify this, samples were taken from the nose and throat of people with influenza at different stages of the disease, and examined for the presence of influenza virus RNA. It turned out that in people with obesity and a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of influenza type A, virus release lasts 42% longer than in people with normal weight. And in patients infected with flu, mild or without any symptoms - this figure is 104% higher than the average figures! For children, no correlation was found between the presence of extra kilograms and the duration of virus release into the environment.
Obesity and Flu Complications
Obese people are at high risk of developing complications from the flu. More often than normal-weight patients, they suffer from severe bacterial infections, it is more difficult for them to tolerate the activity of the influenza virus in relation to the heart and other complications. After the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a report was published on the observations of 10 patients who happened to be at the same time with the same strain of swine flu in a hospital in the state of Michigan (USA). Three of them died. Nine of these ten were obese. But only three had any chronic diseases before being infected with the flu virus; two thirds did not have any. Half of these patients developed pulmonary embolism, in six of them - renal failure. Doctors emphasize that all these complications can develop in an ordinary person who has the flu,but not with such frequency as among this group, 90% of which had an extremely high body mass index (BMI).
Hospitalization of obese influenza patients
Further studies have also shown that obese people are more vulnerable to the flu virus. It is not surprising that they even get to the hospital more often. In Mexico, scientists have collected data on the hospitalization of almost 5,000 people admitted to hospitals with symptoms of influenza-like illness. Some of them remained to be treated at the clinic, and some were sent for home treatment. In addition to the state of health, doctors considered the BMI of all patients. When data on hospitalization and home treatment were imposed on the results of measurements of body mass index, we received a graph in the form of a U. People most likely to be hospitalized with a BMI are within normal limits, and patients with both excess and lack of weight went to the hospital most often. Moreover, the stronger the deviations from the norm, the higher the risk of hospitalization. Interesting,That this relationship was relevant only for adults. In children and adolescents under the age of 19, who accounted for a third of the total number of unwitting participants in the study, no association was found between overweight and the risk of admission to the hospital.
Vaccinations for people who are overweight
Well, since the risks for the influenza virus are so great for people with obesity, then they should not neglect vaccination. But here, there are problems associated with the presence of excess weight. Scientists from the University of North Carolina vaccinated over a thousand adult Americans with the usual seasonal trivalent vaccine - before the epidemic season 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 After that, tests were conducted to assess the presence of antibodies, and all cases of influenza among the project participants were recorded. Some people, despite the vaccine, got the flu. But among people with BMI, within the normal range, this was 5.1%, and among people suffering from obesity, almost 2 times more, 9.8%. That is, even after vaccination, the risk of getting sick with influenza in obese people is 2 times higher. Interestingly, the level of antibodies was about the same for all vaccinated, regardless of the presence of extra pounds. Researchers explain the results obtained that T-lymphocytes - the cells of the immune system necessary to protect against pathogenic organisms - are not functioning properly against the background of obesity. The response of T-lymphocytes to the virus was less pronounced than the effect of vaccination of people with normal weight. I.e, despite a sufficient level of antibodies in the blood, obese people are more susceptible to influenza infection. A possible explanation for the weak reaction of the immune system of vaccinated obese people to the influenza virus may be the results of a previous study, according to which the amount of antibodies after vaccination is indeed normal. But their concentration is rapidly falling. Half of the subjects with obesity 11 months after vaccination, the concentration of antibodies was 4 times lower than immediately after the introduction of the vaccine. A similar situation was observed only in 25% of people with normal weight.
Obesity affects the performance of the immune system and the strength of the body's immune response. It provokes chronic inflammation that progresses with age, makes breathing difficult and increases the need for oxygen in humans. In obese people, vaccine-induced protection against the influenza virus is weaker. And in general, obesity - this means that a person will suffer from the flu harder, and it will also be longer infectious for other people.