What is a hormonal failure?
Hormonal disruption can be called a violation of the endocrine and neuroregulation systems, entailing a series of pathological conditions. Dysfunction can occur in both women and men. It is important to understand that all the processes in our body depend on the current hormonal status. This means that failure can significantly affect the state of health and bring serious harm to the body.
In women, the cause of hormonal failure is often recognized pathological phenomena of the reproductive system. Inflammation and weakening of the body's immune defenses can be a cause for violations. These disorders entail problems in the genital area, failures of the menstrual cycle, worsening of general well-being.
An important feature of the female and male reproductive diseases is the asymptomatic course in the early stages of its occurrence. That is why the main role in prevention is played by constant medical supervision. Individuals should regularly visit a physician to avoid serious imbalances and diseases of the genital organs.
What is a hormonal failure?
Male and female sex hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands. For health in this area are responsible reproductive organs, the cerebral cortex, adrenal and thyroid glands.
In the process of life in the human body there are many changes that entail hormonal jumps. Especially brightly they can be observed in the female body, which passes through the stages of puberty, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation and menopause. At these stages of life, the ratio and number of hormones produced can vary significantly.
Hormonal disruption is an imbalance due to excessive or insufficient production of substances produced by the internal secretion organs.
Causes of hormonal failure
Pathologies, the absence or delay of the development of the genital organs can cause the incorrect production of hormones.
Abnormal work of the endocrine system is often caused by puberty. In adolescence, girls and boys undergo a stage of growth and the formation of genital organs. At this point, their body changes quite strongly outwardly and internally. The girls set stable menstruation, which indicates readiness for pregnancy and childbirth.
Functional disorders occurring in the peripheral glands can cause serious imbalance. Malignant and benign tumors, infectious and inflammatory lesions are capable of causing failures.
Violations of neuroendocrine regulation
This category includes disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary system that regulates the production of hormones. Incorrect work is provoked by injuries of the brain and skull, encephalitis, and cancer lesions.
Hormonal metabolism is carried out in the liver. Pathology of the adrenal cortex provokes a violation of the process of excretion of metabolites.
Hormonal disorders can be caused by certain groups of drugs. The risk of failures is not excluded even if the patient is taking medications prescribed by the attending physician.
Often the cause of hormonal failure in women is the use of self-selected birth control pills. In men, an imbalance often occurs during the course of treatment of diseases of the urogenital system, baldness, allergies, neurosis, and skin pathologies.
Long and strong emotional experiences have a negative impact on the work of the endocrine glands. Due to stressful situations, CNS disorders develop, which has a direct impact on the endocrine work.
Failure to maintain a normal daily routine, excessive exercise and lack of sleep are serious stress. Chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, irritability, decreases the level of sexual activity.
Systematic intake of fatty foods, a violation of normal daily calories leads to a gain of excess body weight. Obesity is one of the causes of diseases of the endocrine system.
Negative nutrition can also have a negative effect on hormones. If a girl for a long time adheres to a rigid diet, there is avitaminosis, exhaustion, thinning of the walls of internal organs. In the case of a dramatic weight loss of 10 kg or more, women often stop menstrual periods, which doctors can recover with great difficulty.
Alcoholism and drug addiction
Alcoholic beverages and narcotic substances cause serious hormonal disorders and other life-threatening diseases. In men suffering from beer alcoholism, there is a high content of estrogen. As a result, these patients often experience hair loss, female-type obesity (an increase in the breasts and thighs), and impotence.
Diseases of the reproductive organs (for example, cancer of the uterus and ovaries) entail a reduced or increased secretion of hormones. An unfortunate operation on the genitals of a man or a woman can have a negative effect.
Forced termination of pregnancy - a huge stress for the body. Hormonal dysfunction is the most common complication of abortion. The highest risk of failure exists in women who have terminated their first pregnancy at a rather late period.
Among the typical signs of hormonal dysfunction after an abortion, nervousness, weight gain, drops in blood pressure, increased sweating is distinguished.
Pregnancy and childbirth
Hormonal background changes markedly after fertilization of the egg. During pregnancy, women suffer from constant mood swings, fatigue, anxiety and tearfulness.
Hormonal transformations during this important period cause the cessation of menstruation, weight gain, and growth of the mammary glands. Among the signs of failure emit a sharp unmotivated weight gain, virilization syndrome, neurological pathology.
Imbalance after childbirth can be associated with gynecological diseases, stress, infectious and inflammatory processes, exacerbation of chronic health problems.
Hormonal disruptions are observed in women during menopause. After reaching the age of 45-55, the body begins restructuring, the production of eggs ends. The menstrual cycle becomes irregular and then stops completely. Lost ability to become pregnant and have a baby.
At this time, the concentration of the female sex hormone, estrogen, is significantly reduced in the body. As a result, aging processes are actively taking place in the body. Sedin appears, deep wrinkles appear, libido decreases.
Patients complain of hot flashes (sensations of heat in the facial area), migraines, hair loss, brittle nails, cystitis and pain during sexual contact. In old age, the lack of female sex hormones predisposes to osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and pathologies of the nervous system.
Symptoms of hormonal failure
You can learn about the onset of hormonal failure by such symptoms as:
- Emotional instability.
- Anxiety, temper and irritability.
- Weight change.
- Overweight body hair.
- Lower abdominal pain due to premature uterine contractions.
- Irregular menstruation.
- Underdevelopment of the mammary glands.
- Uterine bleeding.
- Reduced sexual desire.
Consequences of hormonal failure
In the absence of adequate treatment, a hormonal imbalance can lead to:
- Female or male infertility.
- The growth of malignant tumors.
- Heart attacks and strokes.
- Myome uterus.
- Diseases of the mammary glands.
Diagnosis and treatment of hormonal failure
Diagnosis of hormonal failure is:
- Collecting and checking the history of the disease.
- Exclusion of endocrine organs.
- Examination of the reproductive system.
To correct the patient's condition, doctors apply:
- Drug treatment. Vitamins A, E, calcium, selenium, zinc, potassium, substitutes for female and male hormones are used. neuroleptics, homeopathic remedies.
- Surgical intervention. Operations are performed to remove cystic lesions and tumors.
- Proper diet. Patients are helped to normalize body weight with the help of a balanced diet and physical exertion.
- Restoration of work and rest.
Erectile dysfunction (previously used the term "impotence") is a very common disease in the world, characterized by the inability to achieve and maintain an erection in a state that ensures sexual intercourse. It is known that among men older than 21 years, problems with erection occur in every tenth, and after reaching the age of 60, every third man is not capable of sexual intercourse. The disease tends to progress, although few refer to this problem. Most men do not consider erectile dysfunction a disease, writing off failures in bed for stress or overwork, and many are simply embarrassed to talk about their problem. Meanwhile, erectile dysfunction may indicate a disease, the timely treatment of which will allow to normalize and sexual function.
Erection problems: where to look for the cause?
In 20-40% of cases, violations of potency develop in physically healthy people and are psychogenic in nature. In about 50% of cases, erectile dysfunction develops due to internal diseases. 30-50% of cases of this amount are of vascular origin. It happens that several factors can be combined with each other. Most often with disorders of sexual function have to meet a cardiologist. Impotence often accompanies diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension. Doctors of other specialties can also reveal this unpleasant condition. So, erectile dysfunction often occurs in men suffering from diabetes, obesity, chronic renal failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism. Sometimes problems with potency can occur during treatment with certain drugs, as an unpleasant side symptom. A full erection is provided by the interaction of hormonal, neurogenic and vascular factors. At violation at least in one of these links' dysfunction develops.
Erectile dysfunction in cardiac patients
The basis of the development of erectile dysfunction in people with heart and vascular diseases is a common pathological process for these diseases - endothelial dysfunction. The term "endothelial dysfunction" is understood as changes in the function of the inner layer of the vascular wall (endothelium) in certain diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Erectile dysfunction of vascular genesis can also be attributed to endothelium-dependent diseases. It is for this reason that erectile dysfunction is more common in cardiac patients.
Approximately 50% of patients with high blood pressure have erectile dysfunction. Arterial hypertension is a complex disease in which many organs are involved in the pathological process, they are called "target organs". These organs include the heart, kidneys, brain, retina. Target organs include vessels, including vessels of the penis. Coronary heart disease (CHD) In 60% of patients with coronary heart disease, erectile dysfunction is diagnosed due to the fact that the diseases have similar risk factors. And the presence of associated conditions such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus in coronary heart disease further increases the likelihood of the development of sexual dysfunction. Atherosclerosis Studies have shown that men suffering from systemic atherosclerosis also have problems with erection. Erectile dysfunction in atherosclerosis develops in 80% of cases. A detailed examination of such men revealed: Arteries supplying the penis, were also signs of atherosclerosis; The deposits on the walls (plaques) were similar in structure with atherosclerotic plaques in other vessels; The arteries of the arteries of the penis were narrowed, the arterial blood flow was reduced. This means that atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries of the penis, including problems with sexual function. Multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of an autoimmune nature, in which the nervous tissue is replaced by connective tissue. The process is common, sclerotic changes occur in the nervous tissue throughout the body. In this disease, erectile dysfunction in men develops in almost 90% of cases. The clinical manifestations are not well understood. But it is noted that erectile dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is often accompanied by disorders of urination and defecation (constipation). There are opinions that erectile dysfunction in multiple sclerosis develops as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Diabetes mellitus the lack of normal potency, which could ensure the commission of sexual intercourse and get pleasure from it, is found in diabetes mellitus, both the first and second types. In the pathogenesis of the development of disorders of erectile function in diabetes mellitus, various factors may be involved.
Neurogenic cause of erectile dysfunction
Associated with the development of neuropathy - changes in the nerve fibers of the penis, disrupting the normal conduct of the impulse along the nerves. Vascular causes The development of erectile dysfunction occurs as a result of macro- and microangiopathy, developing in diabetes mellitus. Changes in blood vessels in diabetes are responsible for the development of atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, coronary vessels, aorta, limbs, including the arteries supplying the penis. Also, with this disease, changes occur at the "local level". It is noted that in the cavernous bodies (the structural unit of the male penis) of patients with sugar diabet accumulation of collagen (connective tissue) occurs, the elasticity of cavernous tissue decreases.
Causes of endocrine nature
In some patients, diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a decrease in testosterone levels. Some associate this phenomenon with metabolic disorders and obesity, which are frequent companions of diabetes.
In approximately 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction has a psychogenic nature. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is a great stress for many, and occasional failures in bed are regarded as a manifestation of a serious illness, which is why the following attempts at sexual activity also fail.
People who are obese often have sexually related problems. This is due to the identified relationship of serum testosterone with the volume of visceral adipose tissue in the body. A decrease in testosterone levels in the blood leads to an accumulation of fatty tissue around the organs; Visceral obesity (accumulation of intra-abdominal fat) leads to a decrease in total testosterone levels in the blood. Such a complex relationship between male sex hormones and adipose tissue underlies the development of erectile dysfunction in obesity. Erectile dysfunction, caused by obesity, is easily reversed. Even a moderate decrease in body weight gives good results - an erection is restored.
As a side effect of medication
Violation of sexual function can have a medical nature. Some medications used in the treatment of common diseases can have a negative effect on erection. Most often this is observed in the treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Erectile dysfunction, as a side effect of treatment, develops when taking the following medicines: alpha- blockers; beta blockers; centrally acting diuretics; ganglioblockers; ACE inhibitors. As practice shows, it is the patients of the cardiology department who most need consultation on this intimate topic. The emergence of failures in sexual activity, leads patients to discontinue medication, which complicates the prognosis of the underlying disease. To date, there are many drugs that adversely affect the male potency. These include: antidepressants; hormonal drugs; antipsychotics; antifungal medications; narcotic drugs. As a rule, after discontinuation of the drug, the symptoms of erectile dysfunction disappear independently, the erection is restored in the same amount.
9 most dangerous myths about erectile dysfunction
Intimate relationships are important for both men and women. But representatives of the stronger sex, according to psychologists, associate their sexual achievements with their own ego. They are so worried about this aspect of life that problems with intimacy are the cause of the maximum level of anxiety in men. Not surprisingly, one of their nightmares is erectile dysfunction. In the view of the average citizen, this condition is a collection of myths, most of which are dangerous to his health. MedAboutMe figured out what threatens blind faith in myths about erectile dysfunction.
Myth number 1. Erectile dysfunction means complete absence of erection
No, of course, the concept of erectile dysfunction (ED) is much broader. In general, ED means the inability to obtain and maintain such an erection, so that it is enough for sexual intercourse. And so what this means for a particular man is a separate question. In one case, it is about the complete absence of erection, in the other - the impossibility of maintaining it for at least some satisfactory time, in the third - that the erection is, but weak, and it is not enough for full sexual intercourse, and tons It would be better to start solving the issue of erectile dysfunction at once, when the problems have just appeared and still do not look threatening. To delay the situation until the complete disappearance of an erection is dangerous for sexual function.
Myth number 2. Erectile dysfunction develops with age
It is believed that as a man ages, he naturally develops erectile dysfunction. This is not entirely true. Indeed, older men are more likely to suffer from ED. So, if among the 50-year-old male representatives this disease occurs in every second, then after 60 years - already in 60%. However, this cannot be considered normal. You can say that they need more time, more stimulation than in young years, but this does not mean that their sexual function should fade away completely. Age is not a reason to refuse to make love. Healthy men, regardless of age, are able to achieve an erection and enjoy intercourse. So, it is dangerous to consider age as a hindrance to intimate contacts - this makes it impossible to understand the true causes of ED. Most likely, they are based on psychological disorders or health problems. And the solution to these problems just should not be put on the back burner.
Myth number 3. Erectile dysfunction does not threaten young men
This myth logically follows from the myth number 2. In fact, erectile dysfunction occurs at any age. Older people - more often, younger people - less, but no one is immune from its development. According to statistics from 2013 collected in the United States, 26% of men under 40 suffer from ED, and half of them suffer from severe erectile dysfunction. It is dangerous to turn a blind eye to erection problems, blaming them on stress and psyche, because "young people do not have ED."
Myth number 4. Erectile dysfunction is unpleasant, but not harmful
This is one of the most dangerous misconceptions. ED may be an early symptom of various and quite serious diseases. This list includes diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, hormonal imbalance (low testosterone levels), and even some neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis). This means that ED is a reason to consult a doctor to find out the cause of the problem. First, identifying the disease at an early stage is half the success. Secondly, as a bonus to a timely diagnosed disease and effective therapy, the patient receives a solution to problems with erectile dysfunction.
Myth number 5. Erectile dysfunction - "in the head"
Often there is such a point of view that all the troubles are "from the head," and erectile dysfunction too. Adherents of this approach read articles on the psychology of intimate relationships, go to an appointment with a psychotherapist for years and blame themselves for not being able to cope with their psychological problems. But if the cause of ED is quite physiological - for example, vascular disease, then this approach is dangerous. He delays the process of seeking help from a doctor and still does not allow to solve the problem with sexual intercourse.
Myth number 6. Problems with erection indicate a lack of desire for sexual partner
In itself, the absence of an erection during an intimate relationship with a particular person can really speak about the lack of attraction to it. But, first, why then bring the development of events to such close contact? Secondly, if the desire is still there, and the man is aware of him, then you should not persuade yourself that the feelings experienced are an illusion, since his sexual organ does not obey these feelings. Rather, it is worth considering what the reason for this discrepancy. Especially if problems with erection are observed regularly, with different people and at least for 3-4 months. Erectile disorders, as mentioned above, may be the result of various diseases that are still unknown to the man, when other symptoms have not yet manifested. In addition, ED develops as a side effect when taking certain medications (for hypertension, anxiety and depression), and after a series of surgical procedures on the prostate and bladder. Finally, severe exhaustion and chronic stress can also lead to erection problems.
Myth number 7. The diagnosis of "erectile dysfunction" means a lifetime of medication
If the diagnosis "erectile dysfunction" is made, it does not mean that the life of a healthy person has come to an end, and sexual activity will now depend solely on pills. It is dangerous to think so - it makes delay the start of treatment. But the sooner it starts, the faster and more efficient the result. First of all, if the cause of ED is a specific disease, then its successful treatment will improve the situation in this regard. If ED is caused by taking certain pills, you can pick up a replacement. Finally, the rejection of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, as well as an interest in sports, also have a positive effect on erection, even without taking medication. So, a year after quitting smoking, 25% of men report an improvement in erection. Problems with erection caused by mental disorders are solved in the office of the psychotherapist,specializing in lovemaking. Finally, modern medicine has achieved tremendous success in managing male erection. In addition to pills, there are also very effective injections, various types of surgical procedures and mechanical devices, allowing the man to return to full sex.
Myth number 8. Erectile dysfunction can be cured with dietary supplements
"Fear of white coats" is one of the most common phobias for men suffering from erectile dysfunction. The problem is further complicated by the fact that representatives of the stronger sex do not like to confess to someone their own weakness. Therefore, they are beginning to look for a way out on their own. And often, on the advice of friends or following online advertising, they choose various biologically active additives (BAA) to "increase male strength", "improve potency", etc. And this is a particularly dangerous choice. First, these suspicious mixtures do not cure the underlying cause of ED. Secondly, their composition is unpredictable, which means the reception is fraught with various side effects. Thirdly, their effectiveness has not been proven, the use of such dietary supplements is always "a cat in a bag." Finally, fourthly, often these drugs include drugs dangerous for the body,which may not even be indicated on the packaging. Similar components are used to enhance the effect. The only trouble is that the effect can be very negative for health and long-term. There is one more nuance: attempts to combine dietary supplements with other medications that a patient takes on a doctor's prescription can also end in disastrous for him.
Myth number 9. Taking testosterone eliminates erectile dysfunction
Another dangerous myth. Indeed, sometimes the cause of ED is a violation of testosterone production in the body of a man. But this is just one of many different reasons. If the level of testosterone is normal, then its additional reception will not give anything. In this case we are talking about a hormone, which in no case can not be appointed at random. It is involved in a variety of processes in the body. With uncontrolled intake, serious hormonal imbalance may occur, which will hit different organs and may lead to disastrous results.
If erection problems are observed regularly, you should contact your urologist or andrologist. Not bad before this for a month to keep a diary in which you should note stressful events, the mode of the day, diet and their luck, and failures in terms of sexual intercourse. This will facilitate the diagnosis. It is not necessary to postpone the solution of the problem "for later", as well as to engage in self-treatment and intake of suspicious supplements. This can lead to poor health.
Therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition helps to correct various pathological states and syndromes and, in particular, to optimize the work of the adrenal glands and the endocrine glands. Products that people consume are an important factor contributing to the healing of the adrenal glands and the restoration of hormonal balance, or vice versa. Habitual food allows you to either improve the functionality of these organs, or worsen, depending on food habits and the composition of the menu. The role of diet in the prevention of adrenal dysfunction Food that we eat or avoid helps to maintain optimal health. Chronic pain, fatigue, cognitive decline and mood swings - all of these problems are very common symptoms associated with dysfunction of the adrenal glands. After a person begins to adhere to the recommended diet and changes his lifestyle to a more active one, he begins to feel a significant improvement in health, including a reduction in chronic pain, a surge of energy, an improvement in mood. In addition, proper nutrition contributes to the normalization of blood pressure and blood sugar levels. MedAboutMe provides a list of seven foods that contain key nutrients that are important to the adrenal glands and have a beneficial effect on their functionality and overall health. And also offers a list of unwanted foods that are best to completely eliminate from the diet.
7 Adrenal Health Products
For the entire human hormone system, it is very important that hormones interact effectively with the cell membranes. Especially important for the health of cell membranes, and therefore the optimal functioning of the hormonal system, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Cell membranes are mainly composed of saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, for the production of which the body uses the products that make up the diet. The hormones that produce the adrenal glands are derived from cholesterol. If the cholesterol level is insufficient, the adrenal glands are not able to produce the necessary supply of bark hormones adrenal glands, guaranteeing optimal health. Vitamins and minerals are also needed for chemical reactions that provide for the "construction" of hormone molecules. All these nutrients the body gets from food.
1. Pumpkin seeds against "adrenaline fatigue"
Pumpkin is a very useful vegetable. But for a treatment-and-prophylactic diet designed to optimize adrenal function, its seeds are especially valuable. They contain half of the periodic table, including such important minerals as zinc and magnesium. Pumpkin seeds contain many vitamins of group B, tocopherol (vitamin E), omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
2. Liver - valuable food
No wonder the most caring grandmothers feed their families with liver stew and onions once or twice a week. This product has long been considered vital, health promoting. The liver is an excellent source of B vitamins, easily digestible minerals and fats, which are necessary for the construction of cell membranes. It contains saturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids - all that is so necessary for the successful functioning of the adrenal glands. We advise you to include in the menu of the usual diet dishes from the liver twice a week. It is very important that the liver is fresh, without damage, even dark color.
3. Low-fat meats are good for health
Low-fat varieties of meat, especially animals grown in small farms, have excellent vitamin and mineral composition, as well as a lot of healthy fats. Including this valuable animal product in the diet, you can adjust the balance of hormones.
4. Sardines: the big good of the little fish
Sardine is a fish grown and caught in the open sea. Due to its small size, it does not have time to accumulate mercury and other heavy metals to dangerous indicators for health, unlike tuna and other large fish. At the same time, sardine is an excellent source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
5. Sea salt is better than table salt
The body of some people accumulates too many toxic metals during their lives, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, which are stored in fat reserves. These toxic substances provoke inflammatory processes and lead to adrenal dysfunction. When a person is deficient in certain beneficial minerals, his body tends to replace them with similar substances in various vital chemical reactions. And these analogs can be toxic. Therefore, it is important to have a reliable supply of nutrient minerals in the body. Using sea salt for daily diet, you can significantly improve your "mineral status".
6. Ghee - building material for the adrenal glands
There is no milk protein, casein in ghee. This compares favorably with conventional butter. This product is rich in cholesterol, which is a key "building block" for the adrenal glands, as well as for the production of sex hormones. Since pesticides are concentrated in fat, ghee is preferable to regular dairy products.
7. Vegetables - the basis of an optimal diet
The wider the variety of vegetables on the menu, the better. They help reduce inflammation, reduce the need for insulin, serve to prevent surges in blood sugar levels, and also reduce the load on the adrenal glands.
There are several foods that are best avoided to provide support for the adrenal glands. MedAboutMe is a list of three food groups that should be excluded from the diet. Any added sugar It is not only about refined sugar, but about any of its substitutes, artificial and organic. Sweet foods increase inflammation and nourish the pathogenic bacteria found in the human intestine. They also stimulate insulin spikes, a subsequent drop in blood sugar levels, and bark hormone surges. adrenal glands. Therefore, we recommend to avoid sugar and any of its substitutes. Refined Flour Products These foods quickly turn into glucose, entering the bloodstream, and can lead to the same problems that sugar causes. We recommend replacing them in the diet with whole grains, seeds, nuts, vegetables, edible algae and other foods rich in dietary fiber. Grains Containing Gluten Gluten (gluten) is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley and other grains. Some people with chronic health problems have undiagnosed food intolerance to gluten. Experts recommend removing from the diet all products containing gluten for 3 weeks, in order to understand whether a person has this pathology. The fact is that with food intolerance to gluten in 21 days, it is possible to reduce inflammation by 50%, and, therefore, to understand whether the pathological symptoms have decreased, and whether this person needs food without gluten.
Ovarian dysfunction - a disorder of the hormonal function of the ovaries due to inflammation or endocrine disorders, manifested by a number of pathological conditions. It is characterized by violations of the menstrual cycle: its excessive lengthening (more than 35 days), or shortening (less than 21 days), accompanied by subsequent dysfunctional uterine bleeding. It may also manifest symptom complex premenstrual syndrome. It may lead to the development of endometriosis, uterine fibroids, mastopathy, breast cancer, infertility. General information
Under ovarian dysfunction is understood as a disorder of the hormone-forming function of the ovaries, leading to a lack of ovulation and menstrual disorders. Manifestations of ovarian dysfunction are dysfunctional uterine bleeding, i.e. bleeding lasting more than 7 days after a delay of menstruation for more than 35 days, or frequent, irregular, erratic menstruation, coming at different time intervals (but less than 21 days).
A normal menstrual cycle lasts from 21 to 35 days with menstrual bleeding lasting 3-7 days. The physiological norm of blood loss during menstruation usually does not exceed 100-150 ml. Therefore, any deviations in rhythm, duration of the menstrual cycle and volume of blood loss are regarded as manifestation of ovarian dysfunction.
Symptoms of ovarian dysfunction
The regulation of the activity of the ovaries is performed by the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland: luteinizing (LH), follicle-stimulating (FSH) and prolactin. A certain ratio of these hormones at each stage of the menstrual cycle provides a normal ovarian cycle, during which ovulation occurs. Therefore, the basis of ovarian dysfunction are regulatory disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, leading to anovulation (lack of ovulation) during the menstrual cycle.
In ovarian dysfunction, the absence of ovulation and the corpus luteum phase causes various menstrual disorders associated with insufficient progesterone levels and an excess of estrogens. Ovarian dysfunction may indicate:
- Irregular menstruation, their poverty or, on the contrary, intensity, bleeding in the intermenstrual periods;
- Miscarriage or sterility as a result of disruption of the maturation of the egg and ovulation;
- Pulling, cramping, or dull pains in the lower abdomen and lower back during the premenstrual and menstrual days, as well as during the days of supposed ovulation;
- Severely flowing premenstrual syndrome, manifested by lethargy, weeping apathy, or, conversely, irritability;
- Acyclic (dysfunctional) uterine bleeding: frequent (with a break of less than 21 days), rare (with a break of more than 35 days), abundant (with blood loss of more than 150 ml), long (more than a week);
- Amenorrhea - non - occurrence of menstruation in a period of more than 6 months.
Thus, each of the symptoms of ovarian dysfunction separately is a serious reason to consult a gynecologist and an examination, as it leads to infertility and miscarriage of the fetus. In addition, ovarian dysfunction can indicate malignant neoplastic diseases, ectopic pregnancy, and also trigger development, especially in women over 40, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, mastopathy, and breast cancer.
Causes of Ovarian Dysfunction
The causes of ovarian dysfunction are factors leading to impaired hormonal function of the ovaries and the menstrual cycle:
- Inflammatory processes in the ovaries (oophoritis), appendages (salpingo-oophoritis or adnexitis) and uterus - (endometritis, cervicitis). These diseases can occur as a result of non-compliance with hygiene of the genital organs, the introduction of pathogens from the bloodstream and lymph flow from other organs of the abdominal cavity and intestines, hypothermia, the common cold, and disruption of the vaginal douching technique.
- Ovarian and uterine diseases (ovarian tumors, adenomyosis, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, cervical cancer of the uterus body).
- The presence of concomitant endocrine disorders, both acquired and congenital: obesity, diabetes, thyroid disease and adrenal glands. The hormonal imbalance caused in the body by these diseases is also reflected in the reproductive sphere, causing ovarian dysfunction.
- Nervous overstrain and exhaustion as a result of stress, physical and psychological fatigue, irrational work and rest.
- Spontaneous and artificial termination of pregnancy. Especially dangerous is medical abortion or miniaborta during the first pregnancy, when the restructuring of the body aimed at carrying a pregnancy, ends abruptly. This can cause persistent ovarian dysfunction, which in the future threatens with infertility.
- Incorrect location in the uterine cavity of the intrauterine device. The placement of the intrauterine device is carried out strictly in the absence of contraindications, followed by regular follow-up examinations.
- External factors: climate change, excessive insolation, radiation damage, taking certain medications.
Sometimes it is enough even a single violation of the menstrual cycle in order to develop persistent ovarian dysfunction.