Autoimmune diseases: everything you need to know

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Autoimmune diseases are among the most difficult to treat disorders of the immune system. The immune system recognizes healthy cells of the body as potentially dangerous and begins to attack them.

Autoimmune disorders are misdiagnosed or remain undiagnosed for many years due to the fact that they are very similar in symptoms to other diseases. To combat Autoimmune diseases, the well-known drug Prednisone is often used, which can be ordered on the website

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), about 24 million Americans have at least one autoimmune disease. NIH include only 24 diseases in this statistic.

Here are some of the most common autoimmune diseases.

Celiac disease, or celiac disease, is also known as gluten intolerance.

Rheumatoid arthritis: erosive and destructive destruction of connective tissue, mainly small joints. One of the most common long-term autoimmune diseases.

Psoriasis: autoimmune disease of the skin.

Inflammatory bowel disease (Inflammatory bowel disease): long-term inflammation of the intestine and the mucous membrane of the colon. There are two main types of pathology: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Addison’s disease: A condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones: cortisol and aldosterone.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes): insulin—dependent diabetes is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas, in which an insufficient amount of insulin is produced, which leads to uncontrolled blood glucose levels.

Vitiligo: a condition characterized by a violation of skin pigmentation.

Hashimoto’s disease: autoimmune thyroid disease in which hypothyroidism develops.

Graves’ disease, or diffuse toxic goiter: like Hashimoto’s disease, it is an autoimmune thyroid disease. However, hyperthyroidism is characteristic of this pathology.

Risk factors

Genetics. Studies show that the presence of autoimmune diseases in the family history is a very significant risk factor.

Gender. Women are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men. Researchers are not sure why, but it may be influenced by hormonal factors.

Age. Autoimmune disorders are often noted in young and middle-aged people.

Ethnicity. Indians, Latinos and African Americans tend to be more prone to developing autoimmune diseases.

Infectious diseases. It is believed that the presence of specific viral or bacterial infections contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases in the future. Researchers continue to study the role of infections in the development of diseases of the immune system.

Symptoms of autoimmune disease

The symptoms of autoimmune disease vary and depend on the type of autoimmune disease. Here is a brief overview of some of the symptoms of the most common autoimmune diseases:

Celiac disease: inflammation and abdominal pain, burning in the chest, fatigue, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea.

Rheumatoid arthritis: painful swelling and stiffness of the joints, especially the arms and legs.

Psoriasis: joint pain, dry skin, skin rash and itching.

Inflammatory bowel diseases: stomach cramps, bloating, bloody diarrhea, nausea, constipation.

Addison’s disease: fatigue, low blood pressure, low blood glucose, dizziness, dehydration, and loss of appetite.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus: frequent urination, increased thirst, loss of energy, blurred vision, hunger, and nausea.

Vitiligo: the appearance of various spots on the skin (especially noticeable in dark-skinned patients).

Hashimoto’s disease: weight gain, fatigue, depression, poor joint mobility, as well as increased sensitivity to cold.

Graves’ disease: weight loss, anxiety, trembling hands, high blood pressure pressure and increased sweating.

Systemic lupus erythematosus: muscle and joint pain, rash, fatigue and fever, a characteristic “butterfly” on the face.

Since many autoimmune diseases have similar symptoms, it can be extremely difficult to establish a diagnosis, especially in the early stages.

For example, lupus affects the joints like rheumatoid arthritis, but has a milder course. Lyme disease is also characterized by poor joint mobility, as is rheumatoid arthritis, but it is caused by a tick bite and has an infectious nature.

Inflammatory bowel disease has similar symptoms to celiac disease, but, as a rule, is not caused by eating gluten-containing foods.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer of the immune system. The disease develops due to mutation of T cells of the immune system and has symptoms in the early stages such as skin rash and itching. Often the disease is not diagnosed in time because of its symptomatic similarity with psoriasis.


Autoimmune diseases, as a rule, can be determined by the presence of specific antibodies in the body.

A clinical blood test can show a change in the number of white and red blood cells. In the presence of an inflammatory process in the body, their number will differ from the normal level.

They also conduct studies on the activity of C-reactive protein and measure the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation.

It is precisely because of the similarity of the symptoms of many diseases that it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor to exclude the presence of a particular pathology, or, if it is diagnosed, timely selection of treatment.

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