If we assess the nutritional status of the population of our country, then the following violations of the nutritional status come to the fore:
- protein deficiency , reaching up to 15% of the recommended intake values among population groups, mainly with low incomes;
- deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA – omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) against the background of excessive intake of solid animal fats is noted in the diet of all population groups;
- pronounced vitamin deficiency, year-round and everywhere is detected in more than half of the population, and is:
– 70-100% – for vitamin C;
– 60-80% – for B vitamins and folic acid;
– 40-60% – for β-carotene.
A very serious problem is the nutritional deficiency of a number of minerals and trace elements, such as:
- calcium, especially in the elderly, which is accompanied by the development of osteoporosis and increased fragility of bones;
- iron, especially for pregnant women and young children, which is accompanied by the development of anemia;
- iodine, especially for children during the period of intensive development of the central nervous system, which leads to the loss of a significant proportion of intellectual abilities in adulthood;
- fluoride, the function of which is directly related to the formation and health of teeth, as well as the musculoskeletal system;
- selenium is the most important antioxidant that reduces the risk of developing cancer, without which the normal functioning of the human reproductive system and sexual activity is impossible;
- zinc is a mineral that is of particular importance for the formation and effective implementation of sexual function, which is directly related to the formation of immunity, growth and development of the body, healing of wounds, etc. them to alcoholism and drug addiction;
- dietary fiber, the deficiency of which in our diet leads to serious dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, gallbladder, dysbiosis develops, and the risk of developing colon and liver cancer significantly increases.
That is why there is no doubt that in terms of the degree of negative impact on human health, the current leading deficiency is the so-called micronutrients – vitamins, trace elements and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6, contained in almost all vegetable oils and nuts and omega -3, which are sourced from oily fish, seafood and some vegetable oils).
Violation of the rules of balanced nutrition leads, first of all, to a sharp decrease in the body’s resistance (resistance) to unfavorable environmental factors due to disruption of the functioning of antioxidant defense systems and the development of immunodeficiency states; the risk of developing alimentary-dependent (dependent on the composition of the diet) diseases increases: overweight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, gout, some forms of oncological pathology, etc. Today, clinical statistics confirms this situation, and also testifies to that these diseases are increasingly spreading to younger contingents of the population.
In the context under discussion, one cannot fail to note the fact that in general for the Russian population there is a problem of overweight and obesity, which is detected in 55% of adults over 30 years old, which is also largely due to nutritional disorders.
Along with this, the problem of food contamination with foreign compounds (pesticides, heavy metals, drugs, etc.) remains urgent . The most modern technologies of food production are not able to completely cleanse raw materials from contaminants, and even, on the contrary, in some cases lead to the formation of compounds in food products that pose a real danger to the health of consumers (for example, by-products of the production of solid fats – trans isomers of fatty acids are a factor risk of developing a number of diseases).
Thus, constant monitoring of the micronutrient status of the population, the development and implementation of large-scale, incl. educational, programs aimed at eliminating and preventing existing deficiencies, optimizing the qualitative and quantitative composition of food products of mass consumption, as well as ensuring the sanitary safety of food – the most important task of modern medicine, science and practice of food hygiene.