A lot has been written about diseases and disorders of the spine. Publications continue to appear, this is due to new data and discoveries, the development of more advanced methods of therapeutic and rehabilitative effects in spinal dysfunction. Such publications are written by specialists for specialists, so they are incomprehensible to people not related to medicine. And very often people who are interested in the problems of back pain due to their diseases use the knowledge gained from them to harm themselves. It would be appropriate to outline the main aspects of auxiliary methods of therapeutic and prophylactic effects on the spine with the help of various kinds of back braces.
The spine is the supporting structure of our body
Without the spine, a person could not walk or even stand. Another important function of the spine is to protect the spinal cord. The high frequency of diseases of the spine in a modern person is mainly due to his upright posture, as well as a high level of injury. In order to understand the causes and mechanisms of diseases of the spine, as well as the principles of treatment, it is necessary to study the basics of the anatomy and physiology of the spinal column and spinal cord.
During the second half of the 20th century, various fixators and supports of the spine, called external fixation devices (UVF), began to be introduced into the practice of rehabilitation treatment and correction of the spine . First of all, UVFs were developed for mass use. For example, posture correctors.
The problem of posture disorders is one of the most pressing problems of childhood and adolescence. Those disorders that appeared during the formation of the musculoskeletal system lead with age to diseases of the spine, chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, neurological diseases.
Rykov Yu.A., traumatologist-orthopedist, candidate of medical sciences, as well as an employee of the Trade House “Athletics”, specializing in the production of orthopedic products, reports that now, with rare exceptions, there are practically no adolescents who would have the correct posture … Unfortunately, the reality is that there are more and more risk factors for posture disorders. Physical inactivity, unfavorable ecological situation, an increase in the frequency of chronic diseases in children lead to disorders in the development of the musculoskeletal system.
Poor posture in the early stages is much more effective amenable to sparing methods of treatment than its advanced forms. Posture disorders are associated mainly with a deterioration in the work of the muscles of the trunk. Free posture is adopted by a person automatically, without much muscle tension. One of the most frequent mechanisms of disturbance is static: unilateral load on the muscles of the back and abdomen from systematic stay in an uncomfortable working position, improper posture at the desk or at the table, carrying a weight in one hand or on the shoulder.
At an early stage, there is a violation of the distribution of the load on the muscles that hold the spine in the correct position. As a result, the development of muscles located on different sides of the spinal axis is uneven, the strength and tone of some muscles increases, while others decrease, which causes the axis to bend. The ligamentous apparatus suffers, deformation of the vertebral bodies begins, their displacement occurs. Constant muscle tension causes fatigue and pain. There is a deformation of the ribs, a decrease in the volume of breathing, a tendency to chronic diseases of internal organs, neurological diseases develops.
For the treatment and prevention of postural disorders and static deformities, a special set of gymnastic exercises is shown. Massage, swimming, the use of special devices for sleep, relaxation and physiotherapy exercises, spa treatment are prescribed . The complex of treatment of severe deformities also includes the wearing of corrective corsets.
Such corsets are designed to hold the torso in a given position. Normally, this work is done by the muscles of the trunk. Long-term wearing of a rigid corset will weaken these muscles. Rigid corsets can only be used under strict indications, they are prescribed and selected by a doctor. The time of wearing them is strictly limited, the use must be combined with physiotherapy exercises and controlled by a doctor.
Elastic reclinators , used also as posture correctors, are designed in such a way as to exclude undesirable effects with the maximum possible positive effect. Elasticity is calculated so that when using them, the necessary physiological range of motion and normal work of the muscular apparatus are preserved. There is an unloading of muscles that experience tension and shift the axis of the spine.
At the same time, weakened, “ overstretched ” muscles begin to contract in a new, correct position, their tension is normalized. Its own normal muscle corset is formed, which holds the spine in the correct position. There is an unloading of the vertebral bodies ( reclination ), the correct distribution of the load, over time, the normal ligamentous apparatus is restored. Pain subsides, range of motion increases.
When worn, the retainer encourages the patient to independently hold the torso in the correct position. Normal posture becomes habitual. With the restoration of their own muscle corset, the effect of the reclinator decreases, which is noted by the patients themselves. Elastic reclinators have practically no complications or contraindications. It was found that elastic reclinators do not have an undesirable negative effect, which makes it possible to effectively use them as posture correctors and fixators. They are successfully used in the treatment of spinal diseases, osteochondrosis, herniated intervertebral discs, pathology of the vertebral bodies.
It is also necessary to observe the mode of wearing the reclinator . Remember that the main job of correcting posture is still done by the person who wears it. The reclinator only “reminds” the muscles to maintain the correct position. It is necessary without additional efforts to take a position in which the reclinator straps exert the least pressure and, moreover, do not exert resistance. After a few days of wearing it will become a habit, and the correct position will be held uncontrollably. The reclinator is uncomfortable when worn , but the feeling of discomfort decreases with the correct body position, and will decrease day by day as the posture is corrected.
The child should develop a positive attitude towards the retainer, explain that this is his assistant, who will help to grow up healthy, strong and beautiful, will help to hold the shoulders and back correctly, you just need to feel what he prompts and not interfere with him.
The action of the reclinator is carried out mainly during a static position of the body and with little activity (during classes, walking, in transport). The reclinator should not be worn during active mobile activities,
gymnastics and sports.
You should start wearing the reclinator from 1-2 hours a day, within 7-10 days, bring it to 6-8-10 hours a day. In the early days, using the fasteners, you should adjust the pressure of the straps to the maximum, so that during wearing you have to make significant efforts to reduce discomfort. If in the first days you get tired quickly, it is better to shorten the wearing time, but not reduce the tension. Then, day by day, gradually increasing the wearing time, reduce the tension of the straps (that is, if you were able to wear the reclinator longer today than yesterday, then tomorrow you can loosen it a little). If unpleasant sensations appear in the hands (numbness, pain, “goose bumps”), redness, blanching of the skin or swelling, the reclinator should be removed and made several movements with the hands.
Then use the reclinator with a lower tension on the straps. When correcting a child’s posture during the first days of short wearing, adult supervision is necessary (for example, the first week from Monday evenings and on weekends, bring the wearing time to 4-6 hours, from the beginning of the second week you can put on the reclinator to school).
The lasting effect occurs after 6 – 10 weeks of use, by which time the reclinator has already had a minimal effect. When using a reclinator for the prevention of posture disorders, the tension of the straps should not be strong, worn throughout the day (all the time the body is upright).
Reclinators or posture correctors can be worn on the naked body, but if worn for a long time, it is better to use cotton underwear.
Elastic reclinators are an effective modern tool in the prevention and treatment of posture disorders and diseases of the spine. Their use gives a good effect with a minimum investment of time and effort, allows you and your children to stay healthy and avoid many problems.
Below we present the most effective set of exercises, which was developed by an orthopedic surgeon Rykov Yu.A., a representative of the TD Athletika. They will not require you to visit gyms and other gyms, they will save you time. Anyone can spend 30 minutes a day on themselves.
Start with the exercises available to your fitness, keep them just a few, this is at first. Master everything over time. Decide on the most effective ones for you. As a rule, this is 8-10 exercises. But they need to be done, only then your life will become more comfortable, because it will be life without back pain.
A set of therapeutic exercises for the spine
1. Starting position – lying on your back, legs slightly bent and raised. Simulate the movement of a cyclist. Breathing is arbitrary. 10-12 movements. (“A bike”).
2. Starting position – lying on your back. Raise and lower straight legs. Inhale when lowering, exhale – rising. 10-12 movements.
3. Starting position – lying on your back, legs apart. Circular leg movements. Breathing is arbitrary. 10-12 movements.
4. Starting position – lying on your back, one leg raised. Lowering it, raise the other leg (“scissors”). When lowering the leg, inhale, exhale when lifting. 10-12 movements.
5. Starting position – lying on your back,
legs raised. Circular movements with both legs, first in one direction, then in the opposite direction. Breathing is arbitrary. 10-12 movements.
6. Starting position – lying on your back, hands on the back of the head. Raise your head and shoulders, hold for 5 – 7 seconds, then lower. Inhale when lifting the head, exhale when lowering. 10-12 movements.
7. Starting position – lying on your stomach. Tighten the abdominal wall as much as possible while exhaling, hold it for 5 – 7 seconds, then relax while inhaling. 10-12 movements.
8. Starting position – standing on all fours. Slightly arching your back, pull up the abdominal wall as you exhale, hold it for 5 – 7 seconds, then relax as you inhale. 10-12 movements.
9. Starting position – lying on your back, arms along the body. On the count of 1 – raise your hands through the sides up, on the count of 2-3 – stretch strongly and exhale, on 4 – lower your hands and inhale. 10-12 movements.
10. Starting position – lying on your back / stomach, put your hands under your head. On the count of 1 – 2 – press your head on your hands, exhale, 3-4 – keep in this position, 5 – relax your muscles and inhale. 10-12 movements.
11. Starting position – lying on your back, legs and arms bent, feet and elbows on the floor. Into the count of 1 – raise the pelvis, 2-3 – hold it with exhalation, 4 – lower it while inhaling. 10-12 movements.
12. Starting position – lying on your back, throw your arms to the sides. On the count of 1 – bend your legs to the left, touch the floor with your left knee and exhale. On 2 – return to the original position and inhale, on 3 – the same in the other direction, on the count of 4 – take the starting position. 10-12 movements.
13. Starting position – hands along the body. On the count 1-2 – sit down and clasp your knees while exhaling, 3-4 – lie down and straighten your legs while inhaling. 10-12 movements.
14. Starting position – sitting on the floor. Lean forward, trying to touch your knees with your forehead as you exhale, as you inhale, take the starting position. Perform bends rhythmically 8 to 12 times in a row.
15. Starting position – lying on your stomach, bend your arms at the elbows, lower your chin on your hands. On the count of 1 – slightly raise the straight (or bent) legs, on the count of 2 – 3 – keep your legs on weight and exhale, on 4 – lower and inhale. 10-12 movements.
16. Sit on the mat, hands behind your back. Alternately raise and lower straightened legs, breathing is arbitrary. 10-12 movements.
17. Starting position – lying on your stomach, arms along the body. Raise your head and shoulders, hold in this position for 3-5 seconds, exhale and lower your head and shoulders while inhaling. 10-12 movements.
18. Starting position – lying on your stomach, hands on the back of your head. Raise your head and shoulders, bend your legs at the knee joints as much as possible, stretch your head towards your knees as you exhale, while inhaling, take the starting position. 10-12 movements.
19. Starting position – lying on your stomach. Raise your head, shoulders and straight legs, bend and exhale, hold the pose for 3 – 5 seconds and take the starting position while
inhaling. 10-12 movements.
20. Starting position – lying on your stomach, arms along the body. Leaning with your hands on the floor, take your slightly bent legs up, pull your heels to your head, trying to get into a chest stand on the exhale, while inhaling, take the starting position. This exercise can be done first with a rubber rope (rope), the ends of which are in the raised arms, and the middle part is held by the feet. 10-12 movements.
21. Raise no socks, raising your hands with intertwined fingers at the same time. Stretch well, bending back, and exhale. Do not lower your head, raise your chin along with the movement of your hands. Movements should be slow, smooth, while inhaling, take the starting position. 10-12 movements.
22. Starting position – standing. Perform 3 – 4 springy tilts in a row forward – down, touching the floor with your palms on exhalation, while inhaling, take the starting position. Repeat 12-16 times.
23. Starting position – sit down, rest your hands on the floor. Straighten your legs without taking your hands off the floor, tilt your head to your knees as you exhale, and then sit down again while inhaling, repeat 8 – 12 times.
24. Starting position – lying on your back, legs bent, feet on the floor. Bend your bent legs to the side so that they touch the floor as you exhale, while inhaling – the starting position. Do not lift your back off the floor. 10-12 movements.
25. Starting position – lying on your back, arms to the sides, bent legs are slightly raised. Turn your legs, trying to touch the floor with your knee, first in one direction, then in the other direction. 10-12 movements.
26. Starting position – lying on your stomach, arms bent at the elbows, rest your forehead on the palms, laid one on top of the other. The socks are stretched out, the heels are together, you can rest them on a gymnastic bench or any other support. Raise the upper body, while spreading the arms and sides – inhale, return to the starting position – exhale, and so on 6-10 times.
27. We got down on our knees, we lean on the floor with our hands spaced shoulder-width apart. We raise our right hand forward – up, while moving the left straight leg back – up, take a breath. We return to the starting position – exhale. We do the same exercise for the left arm and right leg. We repeat the exercises 6-10 times.
28. The starting position is the same as in the previous exercise, knees together, arms raised above the head, palms forward, back straight, neck extended. Slowly bend forward, at the same time sitting on your heels, all the emphasis is on the hip and knee joints, we keep our hands in the same position, do not lower them down, the head is motionless. They touched the knees with their chest – they relaxed the muscles of the back. They touched the floor with their palms – they relaxed the shoulder muscles, freely lowered their head. While tilting, we take a deep breath. We also slowly return to the starting position, resting our palms on the floor, straining the muscles of the back, straighten the torso, taking a breath. We repeat the exercise 5-10 times.