Hypothyroidism is a disease associated with a malfunction of the thyroid gland, which appears against the background of a lack of iodine. Treatment of this type of pathology involves not only the use of medicines, but also dietary nutrition, since metabolic processes slow down against the background of the disease.
What is hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is classified as an endocrine disease. The bottom line is that the thyroid gland stops producing enough thyroxine and triiodothyronine. As a result, almost all organs of the body suffer greatly, metabolic processes slow down significantly.
There are primary and secondary forms. The first form accounts for about 99% of all cases, it can appear in connection with:
- infectious diseases;
- imperfection of one’s own immune system;
- insufficient production of iodine by your own body;
- radiation or radiation exposure.
And only 1% of cases are in the 2nd form, which appears against the background of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
The disease may be congenital, the baby may have an underdeveloped thyroid gland, less often it may be absent altogether.
It is rather difficult to suspect the presence of pathology in an adult, therefore, patients, as a rule, turn to a doctor at a late stage. Approximately 60% of patients do not even suspect that they already have problems. At first, a person develops a slight lethargy, tissues often swell, and performance decreases. Many patients gain weight, hemoglobin levels may decrease and dry skin may appear. A common symptom is excessive sweating, regardless of the season.
Over time, as the disease progresses, it becomes more difficult for the patient to endure the heat, he often feels chill in the whole body and limbs, and heart murmurs may be observed. In women, by the way, pathology is more common. It is in the female half of humanity, especially after 40 years, that hormonal disruptions, problems with the menstrual cycle can be observed. In childbearing age, miscarriages are often observed, and men often have problems with potency. Pathology is still dangerous in that it inevitably leads to an increase in blood cholesterol, and this is fraught with the development of atherosclerosis.
To prevent the rapid development of the disease, it is recommended that you strictly follow the prescribed diet and follow the doctor’s instructions for drug treatment.
Rules for building a diet for hypothyroidism
There are three basic rules that can help a person with hypothyroidism improve their quality of life:
- complete cessation of smoking;
- no alcoholic beverages;
- only easily digestible food.
The diet for every day should be diversified only with useful substances, it is better to completely abandon fried foods, cook everything by steam or boil, bake.
The patient should chew food thoroughly, no snacks on the go.
You can drink no more than 1.5 liters of free liquid per day to prevent the appearance of puffiness.
The patient should eat at least 5 times throughout the day. Do not overeat, portions should be small.
Mary Chaumont’s diet
The essence of this diet is to improve metabolic processes and lose weight in the presence of hypothyroidism. Mary Chaumont is a writer who was also a victim of this disease in her time. She had to study a lot of information in order to correct her weight, in the end she got her own diet, which really helps to cope with excess weight. It is no secret that with such a pathology it is quite difficult to use standard advice and actually reduce body weight.
The essence of nutrition is that the calorie content of the diet is calculated for a whole week. For this, the patient’s weight in kg X 25/200. The resulting amount will be the optimal caloric intake of the diet.
You will have to completely abandon sweets, peppered foods, minimize fatty fish and meat in the diet as much as possible. The same goes for dairy products, they can be consumed, but only with a low percentage of fat.
The emphasis is on vegetables and fresh greens, that is, foods that are high in greens and fiber. In addition, they contribute to the elimination of excess fluid and the establishment of metabolic processes. Cereals and foods high in iodine should be present on the menu every day.
Diet number 8
If you rely on dietary tables according to Pevzner, then in the presence of such a diagnosis against the background of obesity, diet No. 8 is prescribed. With reduced body weight, which is extremely rare – No. 10C.
The energy value of a diet with a normal body weight is 2300-2500 units, and in the presence of obesity it decreases to 1700-1800 units.
In case of really serious problems, the patient can be transferred to the diet of table number 8o, which assumes only 800 kcal per day. But it can be observed for a short time and only in a hospital setting, under the strict supervision of medical personnel.
In the diet, the amount of carbohydrates and fats is minimized, which should not be more than 75 g per day. The diet allows you to reduce the number of foods that are high in cholesterol. There should not be more than 1.2 liters of free liquid per day to avoid puffiness.
You should stick to table number 8 for about 3 weeks.
The dietary food in the presence of a diagnosis of “hypothyroidism” is quite varied, many products are allowed for use, namely:
- Seafood. This is not only fish, but also mussels, crabs, shrimps, algae, for example, kelp or cytoresis. They contain a lot of iodine, which is so lacking in the patient’s body.
- Legumes and cereals. It is recommended to introduce sprouted grains of oats, beans or wheat. It is best to cook porridge from these products in water. Sesame seeds will be helpful.
- Vegetables. It is best with such a diagnosis to give preference to salads made from fresh vegetables. Onions, tomatoes, bell peppers, cabbage, radishes, beets and garlic are useful. There are even no restrictions on the consumption of potatoes, but naturally they should be boiled, not fried.
- Berries and fruits. There are practically no restrictions on these products either. Pears and apples, black chokeberry, strawberries, oranges are extremely useful.
- Dried fruits.
- Groats. It is allowed to eat everything, but it is better to give preference to unpolished ones.
- Nuts. Walnuts, Indian nuts, almonds, cashews and hazelnuts should be preferred.
- Any vegetable oil is allowed, but it should not be in the diet for more than 20 g during the day.
From drinks it is best to give preference to ordinary filtered water. You can drink freshly squeezed juices.
You will have to limit the amount of salt in the diet, it retains water and destroys the thyroids, which worsens the general condition of the patient.
Any foods that contain a lot of fat and sugar are removed. This applies to sour cream, honey, sugar, fatty protein foods. It is forbidden to drink strong drinks, such as tea and coffee, it is forbidden to drink carbonated drinks and strongly sweet.
The need to follow a diet
This is not to say that the treatment of hypothyroidism is based solely on nutritional correction. However, the diet will help to get rid of many associated symptoms:
- brittle nails and hair;
And most importantly, the diet allows you to minimize the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Correctly selected food will improve complexion, reduce body weight and prevent constipation.
Consequences of not following the diet
In addition to atherosclerosis, non-adherence to the prescribed diet can lead to myxedema coma. Alas, the mortality rate from this condition is about 80%.
For a child’s body, the lack of treatment and correction of nutrition can cause the development of cretinism or mental retardation. Not the best outcome for expectant mothers. There is a huge risk that a child will be born with severe thyroid defects.
Menu for the week
If you look closely at the list of permitted products, it immediately becomes clear that there will be no problems with the preparation of the menu. It can be as follows:
- Breakfast: oatmeal 100-150 g or buckwheat porridge 100-150 g.
- First snack: salad with vegetables 100 g or permitted fruits, for example, a couple of pears;
- Lunch: seafood salad 200 g, vegetable soup 200 ml. or boiled (stewed) beef with vegetables 200-250 g.
- Afternoon snack: herbal tea 200 ml. or natural yogurt with cookies.
- Dinner: boiled fish 150-200 g, sliced tomato – 100 g or turkey fillet (150 g) with porridge, buckwheat or wheat.
Before going to bed, if, nevertheless, the feeling of hunger prevails, then you can drink a glass of low-fat kefir.
On Wednesday, many doctors recommend doing a fasting day, especially if there are problems with excess weight. For example, on this day, you can only eat fruits or vegetables, in a volume of no more than 1.5 kg. And you can drink kefir all day, but not more than 1.5 liters.
Hypothyroidism is a serious disease that often occurs in people living in unfavorable ecological regions. In this case, the consumption of iodized salt is recommended on an ongoing basis, an increase in the amount of seafood in the diet, in particular seaweed.
If it was not possible to avoid the appearance of pathology, then you should not despair. You should follow all the recommendations of the endocrinologist, follow a diet and, in the presence of excess body weight, do everything to reduce it.