Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is much more common than we even realize. According to the average WHO estimates, about 1/5 of the entire population of the planet is faced with this condition. But most likely, pathology occurs much more often, since it does not have specific symptoms.
Most of the people do not go to the hospital with complaints, trying to find the reasons on their own or attribute the symptoms to another disease. Modern doctors believe that pathology rarely occurs against the background of functional disorders, the problem is in improper diet, constant stress and violation of the regime. Diseases are more susceptible to women. IBS develops most often in people over 20 years old.
What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is not an irreversible disease, therefore, when identifying and eliminating the root causes, the pathology disappears without a trace.
The main reasons for the appearance of IBS include:
- prolonged diarrhea or constipation;
- lack of diet and day;
- intestinal anomaly;
- neurological problems, from stress to insomnia;
- improper nutrition;
- hormonal disruptions, especially in women;
- acute intestinal diseases;
- cancerous growths;
- hereditary factors;
- chronic fatigue.
It should be remembered that IBS does not appear as a separate disease and is always concomitant. Moreover, if the pathology becomes chronic, then it provokes the development of GERD, gastritis, ulcers and other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
There are 3 main symptoms that should alert a person – constipation, diarrhea or flatulence. The factors that should be the reason for contacting a medical institution include the presence of mucus in the stool, a feeling of heaviness and discomfort after eating, water, and drinks. Although this symptomatology is typical for many types of gastrointestinal diseases.
IBS is quite easy to overcome with the help of special nutrition, but this menu should be followed strictly. Basic requirements for dietary nutrition:
- fractional, 5-6 meals a day;
- no long breaks between meals, the feeling of hunger should be immediately dulled;
- portions must be small;
- any food and drink should be at room temperature;
- you need to eat slowly, chewing everything thoroughly;
- it is forbidden to eat 3 hours before going to bed;
- you should stop drinking alcohol and smoking, in extreme cases, reduce the amount;
- no carbonated drinks should be present in the diet;
- the menu should not contain dishes with fat, that is, you cannot fry anything.
In addition, you need to get rid of excess weight and exercise regularly, at least 30 minutes throughout the day.
If you have constipation or diarrhea, you should take a test that will remove foods from the diet that provoke such a condition. To reduce bloating, flaxseed can be consumed, cereals and oat flakes are recommended.
Remember that fast food is a provocateur of IBS, as well as any rough food containing flavors, preservatives, and even chocolate and ice cream.
The main rule of nutrition is lean dishes. The menu should contain only dietary soups, heavily boiled cereals, cooked in water. You can eat lean fish and meat, but not fried.
Bread is allowed for consumption, but only yesterday’s or in the form of crackers. Fermented milk products are allowed, but necessarily fat-free. You can drink herbal decoctions, with berries and rose hips.
Fully or partially limited products
Alcohol and fast food are completely banned. If you cannot refuse at all, then you should drink alcohol in a minimum amount. No hot spices and smoked dishes. Do not fatty and fried. Sweets are prohibited, especially cream cakes, pastries and fresh baked goods.
Bean and mushroom dishes are not the best food. It is they who strongly provoke intestinal irritation. The same goes for pickled and salty foods. During the treatment, you will have to give up any sour berries and fruits. They stimulate the fermentation process, which leads to increased flatulence.
When composing the menu, one should always take into account the individual characteristics of the patient, regarding the reaction to food.
Diet for irritable bowel syndrome with flatulence
If IBS is accompanied by flatulence, then doctors recommend using the FODMAP diet. It was developed back in 2005 in Australia. First of all, the diet allows you to identify poorly digestible carbohydrates in the diet, after which they are removed from the menu and thereby get rid of flatulence.
Particular attention should be paid to the diet of a carbonated drink. The situation is aggravated when a person drinks through a straw, then air enters the colon and inevitably leads to the appearance of gas. Chewing gum and artificial sugars also lead to fermentation. Some fruits and green salads have a similar property. Dairy products and cheeses can also cause flatulence.
Foods with a high FODMAP score also include:
- some grains such as bulgur , semolina, wheat and couscous;
- pistachios and cashews;
- hot spices.
At the beginning of the diet, all possible provocateurs are removed from the diet for a period of 6 to 8 weeks. Then the gradual introduction of them begins. The patient should keep a food diary at this time and write down which foods more irritate the intestines, provoking flatulence. It is clear that some products will have a greater, and some less influence on the state. In this way, it will be possible to identify the most problematic foods that will really have to be abandoned or reduced to a minimum in the diet.
Diet for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation
If, against the background of IBS, constipation is also tormented, then foods are introduced into the diet that stimulate motor function. These include:
- dried fruits and decoctions from them;
- fermented milk products, in particular kefir, but always the first day of preparation.
In parallel with this, you will have to abandon the products that are attached. These are coffee, chocolate, tea, white bread, rice.
Diet for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea
Diarrhea with irritable bowel also brings many inconveniences. To cope with this problem, any foods that provoke diarrhea are removed from the diet. These are fruits and vegetables high in fructose and fiber. The most common are apples, cabbage and beets.
It is also recommended to give up dried fruits, bran and black bread. The menu focuses on stomach-strengthening foods. These include rice, kefir with a production date of 2 days or more, tea.
Diet for irritable bowel pain syndrome
Perhaps the most unpleasant accompanying symptom is pain. They appear against the background of contraction of the intestinal walls. In this case, there is only one way to get rid of – fractional meals in small portions. In no case should you allow the appearance of a feeling of hunger. We’ll have to give up coffee and tea, whole milk. It is better to drink decoctions of medicinal herbs and berries, for example, from bird cherry or lingonberry.
Diet for irritable bowel syndrome with dysbiosis
There are many reasons for the appearance of dysbiosis. To one degree or another, every person experiences such a state. The provocateur can be not only improper nutrition, but also the poor environmental situation in the area of residence, constant stress.
To cope with this condition, especially if it occurs against the background of IBS, you will have to give up spicy and fatty foods, confectionery products with a high content of sugar and its substitutes. Canned foods also cause an undesirable fermentation process in the stomach. Do not eat sausages, legumes and smoked meats.
The selection of foods for the diet should be based on the calculation of their dieteticity , everything must be steamed, in the oven, but in no case must be fried. With this problem, it is useful to eat millet and pearl barley porridge, soups from them. The main thing is to limit the amount of spices and salt as much as possible. Probiotics are helpful, but are best drunk as directed by your doctor.
After diagnosing IBS, you will have to reduce the amount of vegetables and fruits in the diet to 500 g per day. At the same time, it is better to boil them before use. It is recommended to increase the amount of water, but it must be without gas.
An example menu can be composed as follows:
An IBS diet can help restore normal bowel function, eliminate most symptoms, and improve microflora. Compliance with a diet is the key to reducing the amount of medications, in most cases you don’t even have to take them. In general, the diet in this case is quite varied and should be compiled taking into account the individual concomitant symptoms.
With IBS, you should also not give up psychological help. It has been found that in 90% of cases the problem arises precisely against the background of emotional experiences. A psychologist will help relieve stress and teach a person to relax.