An increased level of glucose in the blood inevitably leads to the development of diabetes mellitus. Normally, blood sugar levels should range from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L. However, such indicators are possible only if the analysis is done on an empty stomach. Any food intake leads to an increase in glucose levels, which returns to normal after a certain period of time.
There are some diseases in which glucose levels are high, and this also occurs during pregnancy or when there is a lot of stress. Once everything is back to normal, the sugar level also returns to normal. Excess sugar levels from 7.0 mmol / l is a confirmation of the presence of a “sweet” disease.
Who must comply with blood sugar norms?
By itself, diabetes mellitus does not develop; several factors are necessary for the development of the disease. The most common provoking factors include:
- genetic predisposition, although the presence of the disease in relatives is not a 100% chance of its occurrence;
- varicose veins;
- metabolic problems;
- endocrine diseases.
By and large, all of these factors are relative. However, in 50% of all patients, when diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, serious problems with blood vessels were revealed.
The risk group for type 2 diabetes includes:
- persons 40 and over;
- people who have an indicator with fasting glycemia;
- women who gave birth to a baby with a large weight, from 4.1 g;
- patients who have suffered a stroke, heart attack and other vascular accidents.
The provoking factors also include low physical activity and constant stress.
The first type of the disease most often develops against the background of a genetic predisposition. The appearance of the disease can occur against the background of inflammation of the pancreas. This type of pathology occurs in only 5% of all diabetics.
Signs of diabetes
There are a number of signs that give the right to suspect the presence of diabetes mellitus:
- constant feeling of thirst, feeling of dryness;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- increased amount of urine;
- against the background of increased appetite, a stable decrease in body weight;
- problems with wound healing;
- itching on the mucous membranes and epidermis;
- regular appearance of boils.
And all these signs are manifested against the background of a general decrease in immunity. Against this background, headaches can torment, visual acuity decreases.
Nutritional Principles for Lowering Sugar Levels
There are three basic principles that should be followed when organizing nutrition for a diabetic:
- to reduce the consumption of animal fats and carbohydrates, practically to zero;
- weight loss in the presence of obesity;
- fractional meals, 6 times throughout the day.
- But the most important thing is that you will have to eat foods with a glycemic index of 55 units and below.
General dietary advice for high blood sugar
Food intake into the body should be at the same time. You can’t overeat. It is necessary to give up carbohydrates, the more easily digestible.
Diet with high blood sugar
The diet of a diabetic cannot be called meager. The main thing is to pay attention to the glycemic index. You don’t have to give up fat. The main thing is not to eat foods with trans fats, which provoke heart disease. Fat should account for no more than 7% of the total daily diet. Simply put, you should give up convenience foods, sausages, margarine, french fries, fast food and other similar products.
There are no restrictions on salt either. But an increased amount in the diet is dangerous for a healthy person. A lot of salt on the menu is a huge risk of heart problems.
What to eat with high blood sugar
There is a certain list of products acceptable for use with sugar disease:
- Legumes. It is on the basis of them that it is recommended to build a diet, they are high in protein and fiber.
- Vegetables. Prefer green vegetables. These are spinach, kale, collard greens, cucumbers, lettuce. They are almost completely free of carbohydrates, very few calories. They can be mashed and consumed raw.
- Fruits. For diabetics, lemons, oranges, grapefruits, limes are suitable. Small quantities of strawberries and blueberries and other berries are allowed.
- Whole grains. Avoid processed cereals and flour. Prefer bran and sprouted grains. Wheat bread, oatmeal, barley, that is, cereals, in which there is a lot of fiber, are suitable.
- Dairy products. In principle, there are no restrictions on these products, the main condition is that they must be fat-free.
- A fish. In this case, there are also no restrictions, the main thing is to avoid fish in bread crumbs and heavily fried.
- Seeds and nuts. These foods are recommended as a snack, they contain healthy fat, fiber and a lot of magnesium. Walnuts, sunflower seeds, peanuts, almonds are ideal.
It is better to choose dietary meat, turkey, beef, chicken and rabbit. In no case should you eat fried meat.
What foods can you eat
There are practically no prohibitions regarding the consumption of vegetables, although they have carbohydrates, they are slowly absorbed and do not cause a strong jump in blood glucose. These are cucumbers, cabbage, pumpkin, tomatoes, eggplants, zucchini, salad. Greens and onions are of great benefit.
Carrots and beets are very useful, but the amount of these vegetables must be agreed with your doctor.
Bread is allowed to be consumed, but it is better to give preference to products with bran and protein. Rye and white wheat are suitable, but in small quantities.
You can safely eat fish and meat, especially poultry, eggs, lactic acid products, cheese.
What products are not allowed
A number of foods are strictly prohibited for use with high glucose levels, namely:
- spicy and savory snacks;
- ice cream;
- sugar, can only be consumed by agreement with the attending physician;
If it’s hard to give up sweets, then it is better to cook pear and mountain ash compote. These components lower glucose levels.
Menu options for the day
An approximate diet for sugar sickness can be compiled as follows (3 options):
|Breakfast||Boiled meat, salad with apples and beets||Spinach and tomatoes||Two eggs, bread, cabbage|
|Lunch||Grapefruit||Green apple||Celery salad|
|Dinner||Onion soup, stewed vegetables||Baked herring, tomatoes||Boiled chicken, cucumbers|
|Afternoon snack||Cottage cheese, apple||Apple Mousse||Syrniki|
|Dinner||Schnitzel, whole grain flour noodles||Chicken and fresh vegetable salad||Pangasius in a multicooker|
During the day, you can drink tea and fruit drinks, but it is better without added sugar.
Most often in the diet of a diabetic, xylitol is used as a sugar substitute. In terms of its taste, it is almost the same as ordinary sugar. It is a naturally occurring substance with a low calorie content. Xylitol has a choleretic effect, weakens a little. However, more than 35 g should not be consumed per day. An increased dose can cause indigestion.
Fructose is also acceptable, as it is present in most fruits. However, the amount should be limited.
Diabetes mellitus is a whole group of diseases that increases the mortality rate by 2-3 times. Patients in this category have a 2-fold increased risk of heart attack, and 17-fold increased risk of kidney problems. For this reason, it is very important for such people to monitor their diet. Also, do not forget about regular physical activity, which will allow you to control the patient’s weight. Normal weight makes it easier to control blood glucose levels.