According to statistics, allergic diseases are the most common among all non-infectious pathologies. And the figures have only increased in recent years. Children are more susceptible to the disease. About 4 out of 5 toddlers of preschool age face this problem. The treatment of this disease is quite long, regardless of the patient’s age.
What is atopic dermatitis
Alas, atopic dermatitis has absolutely no specific laboratory
markers for diagnostics. It is possible to identify pathology only taking into account all the same analyzes with a thorough study of clinical symptoms.
The disease is characterized by a recurrent course, that is, it is characterized by constant attacks, with pauses of calm.
Symptoms and causes of the disease
Atopic dermatitis belongs to a heterogeneous group and occurs in most cases against the background of allergic reactions, such as:
- toxidermia .
Of no small importance in the development of the disease is the psycho- emotional load on a person. Improper nutrition, poor ecology can act as a provocateur, especially these two factors are dangerous for children.
In addition to all these provocateurs, genetics is of great importance. For a long time, scientists have been able to establish that if both parents have never had dermatitis, then the probability of the disease in a child is 20%, even less. But, if at least one of the parents at least once encountered an acute form of pathology, and even more so has a chronic form of atopic dermatitis, then the child’s risk of such a disease increases to 50 percent or more. And if both parents have pathology, then the risk rises to 80%.
There are a number of basic and additional symptoms on the basis of which a diagnosis is made. The main criteria include:
- persistent itching of the skin;
- characteristic places for rashes, in children this is the face and the extensor surfaces of the limbs, in adults – the flexion surfaces of the limbs;
- constant remission and exacerbation of the disease;
- severe dryness of the skin, especially in places of the rash;
- increased levels of immunoglobulin.
Less common is nipple eczema, recurrent conjunctivitis.
The danger of the disease is that there is a huge risk of developing superinfection, that is, a secondary form of the disease. Simply put, all kinds of bacteria can enter the wounds, for example, streptococci, staphylococci. Hence the appearance of esfoliative dermatitis.
Types of diets for atopic dermatitis in adults
Depending on the stage and speed of the inflammatory process on the skin, local treatment is prescribed. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe antibacterial and antifungal treatments.
Along with this, a special diet is prescribed, which will allow you to quickly cope with the problem that has arisen and prevent the occurrence of an exacerbation.
Then a special diet is prescribed. You should not prescribe your own diet on your own, as it must be balanced, and without proper education, you can miss something and harm your health. There are two types of diets: rotational and elimination .
Antiallergenic diet is also distinguished, which is prescribed exclusively by a doctor and with a precisely established provocateur of an exacerbation.
During treatment, it is necessary to reduce the amount of foods that adversely affect the functioning of the liver. These include fats, especially animals.
This nutritional system is prescribed for the acute form of atopic dermatitis. Its main goal is to identify a food allergen. The diet is varied, but each new product appears on the menu only for 4 days. This approach will allow you to identify the allergen, because a food diary is kept in parallel, in which the body’s reaction to a particular product is recorded.
On the basis of products that are normally tolerated in the future, the diet is built. This allows you to avoid further exacerbation of the disease.
If the allergen is known, then an elimination diet is prescribed . As a rule, fasting is recommended in the first days of an exacerbation; you can only consume milk (if there is no allergy) and water. Permitted food products are gradually being introduced, but there are also mandatory restrictions. You cannot eat mushrooms, semolina and millet porridge, tropical berries and fruits, meat, fish, pasta. Chewing gum is not allowed.
Features of the diet for adults and adolescents
If it was not possible to get rid of atopic dermatitis in childhood, then you will have to follow the prescribed diet throughout your life. Its main principle is the exclusion of all products that can cause allergies.
You will have to give up any dishes that have a pronounced taste. These are spicy, spicy, salty and sour dishes. Vegetables and fruits are allowed in the diet, but they are selected according to the season. You need to eat 4-5 times throughout the day. Do not forget about the drinking regimen and drink about 1.5 liters of free liquid throughout the day.
Features of the diet for pregnant and lactating women
If the expectant mother has atopic dermatitis, she should especially pay attention to her nutrition, so as not to provoke an exacerbation in herself and try to avoid the disease in the unborn child. To do this, a woman should carefully follow all the recommendations of the doctor accompanying the pregnancy.
Even if a woman has a tendency to develop allergies, she will have to give up a number of products: eggs, especially raw, milk, or limit it to 2 glasses a day, chocolate, sugar and honey, sausages and nuts. That is, from any provocateurs of the appearance of an allergic reaction. It is not allowed to eat products that, even after heat treatment, do not reduce their allergenicity .
To reduce the risk of dermatitis, probiotics are administered in the last weeks of pregnancy and during breastfeeding . They play a huge role in the primary prevention of allergies.
Features of the diet for babies
The diet in infancy in the presence of atopic dermatitis is based on several principles:
- complete elimination of causal allergens;
- elimination from the diet of any products that contain preservatives, dyes and other extractives;
- replacement of harmful products with adequate natural ones, according to the age of the baby.
Also, mom should always remember that not all rashes are the result of atopic dermatitis, so you should definitely visit your doctor regularly.
In no case should a nursing mother refuse to lactate, with breast milk the baby receives full nutrition, without any allergens.
You should not rush to complementary foods, it should begin no earlier than 5-6 months from birth. Begin feeding with grated boiled vegetables. After that, they begin to introduce fruits, and at the very last stage, meat and dairy products. And at the very end, foods are gradually introduced that can cause allergies.
Features of the diet for children from 1 to 3 years old
At this age, all meals for the child should be steamed or boiled. It is advisable to soak vegetables before cooking, boil the meat 2 times. In no case should there be very hot or cold dishes.
List of prohibited foods
The list of strictly prohibited foods for use with atopic dermatitis includes:
- vegetables: tomatoes, carrots, sorrel, radishes, beets, rutabagas, celery;
- offal: boiled sausages, small sausages, sausages, pork, chicken broth;
- seafood will have to give up crustaceans, red and black caviar, canned fish;
- dairy products: milk, processed and cream cheese, cream, cheese with hot spices;
- fruits: it is best to avoid those that are red, peaches, persimmons, melons, citrus fruits, grapes and cherries;
- cereals: wheat and semolina;
- sweets and bread: cakes with cream, ice cream, gingerbread, chocolate and any muffins, honey.
From drinks, you should refuse all carbonated drinks, alcohol, jelly, coffee and cocoa.
List of approved products
It is allowed to enter products that have the lowest allergenic activity. These include:
- beef, but only lean parts;
- cereals, pearl barley and rice;
- apples, but only green;
- boiled chicken;
- white currant;
- dried fruits.
Of the vegetable oils, sunflower and olive oils are best.
As a rule, atopic dermatitis is diagnosed in babies and it is possible to get rid of it before the onset of 12 years. If it so happened that the disease intensified at an older age, then you cannot do without a diet. An example menu can be composed as follows:
Breakfast. Vegetable stew and a little boiled chicken or oatmeal, always cooked in water and some dried fruit. You can drink it with green tea or compote from permitted fruits.
Dinner. Vegetable soup, buckwheat porridge and boiled tongue, you can boiled lamb, always from the lean parts of the carcass.
Dinner. Boiled rice, no milk, chicken or beef meatballs.
Snacks include dried fruit, baked apples, and permitted fresh fruit.
By and large, the diet for atopic dermatitis does not cause any inconvenience to the patient. The main rule is a complete rejection of harmful products, that is, fatty and fried, smoked meats. Foods and drinks containing dyes, preservatives, sweeteners, that is, artificially created are not allowed.
Compliance with a diet will allow for this type of disease to increase the duration of remission and improve the body’s immune forces.