Cirrhosis of the liver is a serious disease that, in the absence of supportive therapy, will inevitably lead to death. There are many reasons for the appearance of the disease.
What is cirrhosis of the liver and why does this disease haunt people?
The liver is a natural filter for the entire body. If an organ fails, then all organs begin to suffer. Cirrhosis is a condition in which fibrosis develops, as a result of which abnormal regenerative nodules appear instead of the normal liver architectonics . In fact, this is the final stage for many liver pathologies.
In the world, this disease ranks first among all causes of death. The disease develops against the background of alcohol dependence, the presence of hepatitis C. Hepatitis B, which is most often found in the countries of Africa and Asia, is less common. There is also cirrhosis of unknown etiology. Clogged bile ducts can lead to the development of pathology.
There are three stages of the disease. The first or initial is characterized by minimal symptoms. The second stage is already characterized by serious clinical manifestations. The latter or thermal – these are already irreversible processes in the body, which inevitably lead to death.
Despite the severity of the disease, dietary nutrition plays an important role in therapy. Most often, a dietary table number 5 is prescribed. Nutrition involves a diet enriched with vitamins, food products should have a minimal negative effect on organs, especially the liver. Along with this, physiotherapy is prescribed, for example, plasmaphoresis , diathermy.
General recommendations and rules of medical nutrition
With this type of disease, the patient will have to adhere to fairly strict dietary rules. Only the attending physician can prescribe the diet; it is not worth changing and adjusting it yourself.
There are a few general rules to follow:
- fractional meals;
- calorie content should not exceed 3000 units;
- drinking a lot of liquids is prohibited, no more than 1.5 liters throughout the day;
- it is permissible to consume no more than 2 teaspoons of salt per day, taking into account all the products included in the menu;
- no solid food, everything should be ground and go into the stomach in a crushed form;
- food and liquid should be warm;
- under a special ban, fried foods, it is unacceptable to cook food in a microwave oven and on a grill;
- stews can be enjoyed no more than once a week.
Fasting days should be present in the patient’s life. On such days, you can eat only vegetables and dairy products, that is, no meat.
How diet can help
Features of the diet completely depend on the stage of the disease. At the initial stage, the organ is still capable of performing its functions, therefore, a diet is prescribed in order to reduce the load on the liver and prevent further development of the formation of fibrous tissue. If the diet is disturbed or for some other reason, the process of destruction continues, and toxins begin to accumulate in the body on a large scale, and the liver, in turn, is unable to prevent their negative effects on the body.
For this reason, the diet is changing radically. At the compensatory stage, the diet focuses on protein foods. They help to increase the immune forces and the restoration of organ cells. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be second after meat. Vitamin complexes are often prescribed. You need to drink about 1.5 liters of water, and if ascites is present, then more.
The decompensation stage involves inpatient treatment. At this stage, on the contrary, the amount of protein in the diet is reduced. The body is no longer able to digest them, much less help their breakdown. The emphasis in nutrition is placed on complex carbohydrates and vegetable fats in order to stop the accumulation of ammonia and reduce the general intoxication of the body.
What can you eat with liver cirrhosis
Despite the strictness of the diet, the list of permitted foods is quite large. You can eat:
- uncomfortable pastries;
- wheat bread, but only of the highest grade;
- vegetable, dairy and cereal soups;
- lean fish varieties;
- lean meat or one from which all the fat has been removed;
- baked or steamed egg omelets;
- you can almost any vegetables, raw and boiled, steamed;
- Sweet and fully ripe fruits
- vegetable and sour cream sauces;
- small amounts of vegetable oil;
- butter is only natural and preferably in the composition of dishes.
You can drink tea, compotes, juices, preferably prepared at home, jelly.
What not to eat with cirrhosis of the liver
The main rule of nutrition in the presence of cirrhosis is no fried food.
The following products are also prohibited:
- hard boiled eggs;
- canned food;
- spicy and salty cheeses;
- canned food;
- fat cottage cheese and fermented baked milk;
- hot spices and spices;
- the fat of any animals;
- ice cream;
- smoked and pickled dishes.
You will have to completely give up alcohol. It is forbidden to drink coffee, hot or cold drinks.
Diet number 5 for liver cirrhosis
Traditional nutrition in the presence of cirrhosis is table No. 5. It was also developed by the Soviet nutritionist Pevzner MI. Naturally, these are general recommendations, but their observance guarantees a fairly good result, and the final one still depends more on the correctly chosen treatment tactics. The degree and stage of the disease should always be considered.
During an illness, the liver has a very hard time, so there is no need to consume alcohol, the body will become even worse. The diet should be as gentle as possible, but on condition that an optimal balance is created between the amount of fat, protein and carbohydrates.
Nutrition involves not only limiting a certain list of products, but also avoiding overeating; a long break between meals should not be allowed. Ideally, there should be 3 main meals and two light snacks. Salt should be present in limited quantities, and if possible, then it is better to refuse to use it altogether.
Menu for a week with cirrhosis of the liver
Alas, those who have loved fast foods and fried foods all their lives will have to get used to proper nutrition quite seriously and probably for a long time, without which it is impossible to improve the quality of life in the presence of cirrhosis of the liver.
An example menu can be composed as follows:
|Breakfast||Boiled rice, dried fruits|
|Dinner||Potato soup, boiled chicken|
|Afternoon snack||Kissel from your favorite fruits|
|Dinner||Cottage cheese, a little oatmeal and baked fish, compote|
|Breakfast||Cottage cheese, dried fruits, tea|
|Lunch||Baked apples, with honey|
|Dinner||Barley porridge, chicken breast|
|Afternoon snack||Steam omelet, some fruit|
|Dinner||Rice and vegetables, boiled pork|
|Breakfast||Buckwheat porridge, fish cakes, jelly|
|Lunch||A little cottage cheese and milk|
|Dinner||Noodle soup, boiled beef|
|Afternoon snack||Oatmeal cookies, compote|
|Dinner||Cheesecakes, a small piece of chicken|
|Breakfast||Semolina porridge, tea|
|Lunch||Dried fruits, compote|
|Dinner||Light fish soup, any boiled meat|
|Afternoon snack||Apple puree, green tea|
|Dinner||Steamed vegetables and steamed beef|
|Breakfast||Oatmeal, green tea|
|Lunch||Steam omelet, tea|
|Dinner||Potato casserole, cheese, noodles soup|
|Afternoon snack||Kissel, biscuits|
|Dinner||Cabbage rolls, boiled carrots, mineral water|
|Breakfast||Cottage cheese with honey, oatmeal, berry juice of our own production|
|Lunch||Cheese, necessarily low-fat, biscuit biscuits|
|Dinner||Chicken breast, buckwheat porridge|
|Afternoon snack||Cookies, milk|
|Dinner||Carrot puree, steamed fish, jelly|
|Breakfast||Cabbage rolls, a little boiled turkey, milk|
|Lunch||Omelet, dried fruit|
|Dinner||Rice porridge, fish|
|Afternoon snack||Baked apples, fruit jelly|
|Dinner||Pasta, chicken, tea|
In between meals, you can drink water, but not get too carried away.
How to avoid unpleasant prospects and possible complications
For preventive purposes, first of all, it is necessary to minimize, and it is best to completely abandon alcoholic beverages. You should not smoke, and even more so use drugs that have a harmful effect on the body.
It is imperative to treat any diseases, especially those that have affected the gastrointestinal tract. Particular attention must be paid to your diet, it must be complete and healthy. It is always necessary to keep the water balance at the proper level and to exercise at least a little.
Liver cirrhosis is an extremely dangerous disease that can be fatal. If the disease is detected at the last stage, then no more than 41% remain alive for 3 years. Therefore, it is extremely important to undergo regular medical examinations and monitor your health. Take care of yourself, take care of your health.