Fitness is, first of all, a healthy lifestyle. Fitness is also the perfection of physical fitness, balance of the emotional state. There is no single, definitive definition of fitness. Until now, there is a discrepancy even in the spelling of the words “fitness” and “fitness”.
Literally translated from English, the word fitness ( fitness ) means fitness, compliance. The term “fitness” refers to the versatile development of physical abilities while improving well-being during fitness activities.
Fitness is a way of life that allows you to maintain and strengthen health, balance the emotional state, and improve physical fitness. Fitness allows a person to live a full life, to be free from controlled risk factors. With the help of fitness, potential physical abilities are developed.
Fitness is a lifestyle that leads to physical and mental health of a person. Fitness includes training in the gym, and aerobics, and proper nutrition – in a word, fitness is a lifestyle that is commonly called “healthy.”
Fitness is a lifestyle. Healthy, active, handsome, charming. Fitness is by all means associated with success in life and youth.
Fitness is also distinguished as a sport.
Here are several versions of the fitness history:
Antique. According to this version, the goal of fitness is inner harmony and outer beauty. This is exactly what they were striving for back in the 5th century BC. the ancient Greeks, devoting themselves to sports and turning athletics into a kind of art. It was an exercise for the elite. Moreover, many hours of daily training made athletics a profession – the ancient god-like athletes spent all their time training to win the Olympic Games. A little later, in the 2nd century A.D. the art of athleticism reached Rome and athletic competitions became popular shows there. Nothing in history has been as powerful as fitness – wars were suspended during the Olympic Games. And the games were revived in 1896 as a confirmation of friendship and mutual understanding throughout the world.
In our time, as in Ancient Greece, fitness for some has become a profession, and for others – a way to achieve physical perfection and spiritual harmony. True, modern athletes have modified ancient sports beyond recognition, making the sport tougher. But even after the end of a career, almost every athlete is engaged in fitness and gets more pleasure from it than from sports.
American. Fitness “officially” appeared in the United States about 30 years ago, although the first fitness programs were formed during the Second World War. In order not to waste time, American soldiers trained with weights, strengthened the abdominal muscles, tightened … Then these simple exercises became classics and were improved over the years by fitness professionals.
In the 70s of the 20th century, tests of the physical condition of various groups of the population revealed a host of health problems for many Americans. And these problems increased in proportion to the improvement in the quality of life. People came home from work, turned on the TV, drank beer … And if in big cities there was still some alternative to such a “way of life”, then in the provinces things were very bad. And then, under the President of the United States, the Fitness Council was created, which included 20 of the most respected fitness professionals, as well as politicians from different states. The main goal of this council was to popularize fitness.
As a result, if 10 years ago in the United States there were 4 million people involved in fitness, now only members of fitness clubs – 16.5 million people. And this figure does not stop growing.
Russian. Fitness came to Russia relatively recently, about 10 years ago. By that time, the Russians had practically forgotten how to take care of themselves. And I had to start from the very basics – to explain the meaning of the word “fitness”, to explain the features of fitness programs, to teach people how to exercise correctly.
The Russian fitness industry is developing at such a fast pace that now the level of specialists and the level of education of people involved in fitness clubs is very high.
What time of the day is it more effective to conduct fitness training? Today it is not a secret for anyone that human biorhythms are controlled by an internal clock, which controls the time of waking up, going to bed, eating and much of what we do not even think about, considering it a natural need of the body. And this, in fact, is a product of the vital activity of our brain, which regulates body temperature, blood pressure, metabolism, etc.
Physical activity, or rather, its effectiveness, also depends on the internal clock, and is calculated individually for each student. Training will be most effective during your body temperature peak.
A few hours before waking up, the body temperature corresponds to its minimum daily value. And somewhere in the middle of the day, the temperature reaches its maximum value. Scientists have proven convincingly that the middle of the day or early evening is the best time to exercise. At this time of day, body temperature reaches its peak, muscles are in a warmer state. Strength is optimal, reaction rate is fastest, and blood pressure is relatively low.
If you want to calculate “your” optimal time for training, measure and record your body temperature for 5 – 6 days every 2 – 3 hours. On the graph, mark the time of the highest temperature rise. 3 hours before peak and 3 hours after and will be your optimal time for training.
Fitness is a strictly scientific system of human improvement. To get the most out of your fitness routine, it is helpful to be familiar with the science behind fitness training.
As you know, fitness and physical health are based on a healthy lifestyle, the development of athletic and motor qualities. There are several such qualities that give the most complete definition of fitness, with their reasonable combination.
General aerobic endurance – the ability to perform long-term work of average power and resist fatigue. The development of this quality ensures that the movement can be performed for a long time with a simultaneous rapid recovery from stress. Your aerobic system uses oxygen to convert carbohydrates into energy sources. Longer exercise also includes fat and, in part, protein, making aerobic exercise nearly ideal for fat loss.
Speed endurance is the ability to withstand fatigue in submaximal speed loads.
Strength endurance – the ability to resist fatigue with sufficiently long-term strength loads. Strength endurance shows how much the muscles can create repetitive efforts and for how long to maintain such activity. Strength endurance is essential for any type of active fitness activity, from anaerobic repetitive weight lifting to intense aerobic activity while running.
Speed-strength endurance – the ability to perform sufficiently long-term strength exercises with maximum speed.
Flexibility is the ability of a person to perform movements with a large amplitude due to the elasticity of muscles,
tendons and ligaments. Increased flexibility reduces the risk of injury during exercise.
Quickness is the ability to alternate muscle contraction and relaxation as quickly as possible.
Dynamic muscular strength – the ability to maximize the rapid (explosive) manifestation of efforts with great burden or own body weight. In this case, a short-term release of energy occurs, which does not require oxygen, as such. An increase in muscle strength is often accompanied by an increase in muscle volume and density — muscle “building”. Besides the aesthetic value, the enlarged muscles are less susceptible to damage and contribute to weight control, since muscle tissue requires more calories than fat tissue, even during rest.
Agility is the ability to perform complex coordination motor actions.
Body composition – the ratio of fat, bone, and muscle tissue in your body. This ratio reflects, in part, your health and fitness levels in relation to your weight and age. Excessive adipose tissue increases the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, etc.
In the history of the development of anatomy, attempts have been made to derive a formula for beauty through mathematical calculations. Today we have many such tables, formulas and graphs (more on that below). But in practice, their reliability, despite their validity and seeming convincingness, seems to be very doubtful. No formula will tell you whether you are beautiful (proportional, graceful) outwardly or not. None of those electronic computers, which are equipped with some fitness centers, will tell you this either.
I recommend that you follow a simple mirror image. Here are the basic requirements for a good physique:
Correct posture (straight back, shoulders slightly lowered and slightly laid back);
Raised strong chest (elastic and “keeps” its shape);
Pronounced waist without excess body fat;
Strong, bulging gluteus muscles
Lack of excess body fat.
Well, for lovers of all kinds of calculations, I will give several different formulas, where:
B – thigh girth under the gluteal fold;
P is the circumference of the shoulder (arm);
H – shin circumference;
W – neck circumference;
G – chest girth;
T – waist circumference.
The proportionality of the figure (P) can be defined as follows:
P = B: (N + P + W),
You should focus on approximately the following indicators:
for women P = 0.54-0.62,
for men P = 0.46-0.52.
The proportionality of the physique can also be determined in this way:
P = (leg length: body length) x 100% or P = ((standing height – sitting height): sitting height) x 100%
Another formula for proportionality of the physique:
P = (waist circumference: height) x 100%
Grace can be determined by the formula:
I = (G – T): (2H – B),
Indicators should be something like this:
for women I = 1-4,
for men I = less than 1.
Despite the fact that overweight leads to metabolic disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system over time, the number of obese people is growing every year. According to experts from the World Health Organization, today obesity affects about a fifth of the world’s population.
The accumulation of only 4-5 kg of excess fat in the body creates some changes in the metabolism, which are already enough for the development of atherosclerosis. It is generally accepted that, ideally, a person’s body weight should remain throughout life approximately the same as it was established at 25 years old.
It is also necessary to distinguish between the concepts of “obesity” and “overweight”.
Obesity is an excess accumulation of adipose tissue in the body that endangers human health.
Overweight is the presence of extra pounds in a person without a serious threat to health.
Despite the external similarity, the difference between these states is very significant.
Although obesity occurs for various reasons, the most important of them are two – overnutrition and insufficient physical activity.
To carry out its vital functions (movement, heat generation, tissue renewal), the human body needs a certain amount of energy. The body receives the energy necessary for vital activity with food. To maintain a constant body weight, it is necessary to strictly consider the consumption of calories and their expenditure (energy consumption). If the body receives more calories than it consumes, the person begins to gain weight.
To get rid of excess weight, you must follow these recommendations:
Follow the necessary dietary recommendations.
Increase energy consumption.
You can increase energy expenditure by increasing the level of physical activity (aerobics, fitness training, etc.).
It is necessary to introduce different types of physical activity into the arsenal of your sports activities: walking, running, skiing and cycling, sports games, gymnastics, etc. Preference should be given to aerobic training.
Among the physical activities available in everyday life, walking up the stairs should be distinguished. Approximate energy consumption when climbing with a frequency of 60-70 steps per minute is 0.14 kcal per 1 kg of weight. Thus, a woman with a body weight of 70 kg spends about 10 kcal per minute when climbing stairs. The energy consumption when going down the stairs is slightly lower. It is advisable to start training from 10-15 minutes and bring up to 30-40 minutes.
Keep in mind that irregular and low-intensity activities only contribute to an increase in appetite. Classes should be carried out at least 3-4 times a week and in sufficient volume, with an optimal load.
Stress is the body’s response to various extreme influences, which can have not only a psychological nature (conflict, problems at work, whims of children, grumbling parents, a constant lack of money, household chores), but also a physiological nature (we look forward to the first spring sunlight, heat, and as soon as the sun really warms up, we begin to complain about the heat and dust). Both the one and the other type of negative factors – stressors cause the same biochemical changes in the body.
According to the theory of the Canadian biologist and physician G. Selye , who first proposed this term, the body’s general reaction to a stressful situation occurs in three stages:
1. Anxiety phase. Our usual set of emotions is replaced by anxiety and alertness. This is where the stressful state begins. At this stage, the body prepares to recognize the problem, accumulates resources to solve it. This is the so -called “pre-start fever”.
2. For a short time, he adapts to the constant presence of a stressor, continuing to draw strength from his reserves, along the way, generating a huge amount of adrenaline. This is the so-called phase of resistance, externally characterized by the absence of any specific symptoms of developing stress, which makes it invisible to others, and sometimes to the person himself. We can say that at this stage the influence of the stress factor is positive, since it mobilizes the available resources of the body.
3. However, these resources are not limitless, once the strength to deal with the problem ends, all resources are spent, and as a result, a phase of exhaustion begins, extremely dangerous, leading to nervous breakdowns, and sometimes even death.
According to psychologists, anger, irritability, aggression are very rarely a reaction to a particular situation. In everyday life, when something fundamentally does not suit a person, then over time, the so-called begins to accumulate inside him. negative charge. Over time, negative emotions irresistibly break through even for minor reasons. This has a devastating effect on health: blood pressure increases, the risk of cardiovascular crises, heart attacks and strokes. Stress and emotional tension significantly reduce the body’s resistance – in this sense, any disease can be considered psychologically conditioned.
With all our desire to avoid stress, it is impossible. Most people are unable to control themselves, because they have already accumulated excess negative potential within themselves.
Applied to fitness: Many expect body shape changes to come from scratch. Often a beginner will practice for a year or a year and a half and begin to whimper: I have been training for so long, but there is no serious result, just as not! Meanwhile, during this period, starting with complete detraining , you will not gain even a quarter of the physical form that is called excellent!
Stress cannot be stored in yourself. Here are the simplest self-control techniques to help you avoid all sorts of “inappropriate reactions”:
Reduce your consumption of cigarettes and coffee, or rather quit smoking and drinking coffee altogether. Both of these exacerbate nervous reactions, make a person unnecessarily irritable.
Try to deliberately look for situations that provoke you to anger.
Try to avoid these situations.
Always try to evaluate yourself as a healthy, cheerful and active person.
Get fit. Physical activity “feeds” the psyche with positive compensatory emotions.
If you find yourself in a stressful situation, straighten your back, straighten your shoulders and suck in your stomach. Stop thinking about what happened. Think about how you look now. Relax your face, remove the tense and resentful expression from it. Run your tongue over your teeth several times, then lick your lips. Place your hands on your forehead and press lightly. Pat your cheekbones gently with your palms. Rub your temples. Take a few deep breaths in and out with your hands on your knees and relaxing. Then take a few deep breaths with your fingers locked. If you’re sitting at a desk or computer, take off your shoes and gently tap your feet on the floor — all of your feet.
Another “soothing” exercise is striking with the edge of the palm on a hard surface. It soothes and allows you to focus, and at the same time strengthens the edge of the palm.
If no one sees you at the moment, you can jump and wave your arms and legs.
Breathing exercises can help relieve stress and irritation and are a good way to fight fatigue.
Sit up with your legs hanging freely. Twist your legs several times in one direction and in the other: braid in one direction – untwist – braid in the other direction. Move your woven legs to the right and left several times. Straighten your legs, strain, then relax. Bend your knees slightly, place them parallel to each other and swing them right and left. Stand up, straighten like a string, take another deep breath, exhale through your mouth.
In short, do fitness – you will be healthy!